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Performance of NGO Conant Institute – a destiny for Employment goal Soft skills teach one to be Strong, Just like water nourishes a sapling into a fully grown tree; soft skills act as nourishment that motivates you to face the challenges of employment. The art of soft skills teach you to overcome all hurdles and emerge a winner, as Conant Institute believes in offering training to make employable. It is a renowned name in the arena of hard skills. For the past eight years, it has trained unemployed people across the country and predominantly in north east India. It is an institution of Trainer of Soft skills and life Skills. Through soft skills training, it extended knowledge and vocational training to many unemployed in the northeast. In its endeavour to impart confidence and knowledge besides training, it has full support from a bevy of successful trainer in the north east. Who are its trainers? Its trainers are phenomenal motivational dedicated workers with vast knowledge of vocational experience. They gathered laurels in more than four countries and have been experts in soft skills for the past four years. As hard and life skills trainers they have changed the lives of more than two hundred people especially in north eastern India. As part of institute’s training method it focuses on social, spiritual, emotional, physical, and intellectual development. An enigmatic methodology it imparts soft skills knowledge like, Critical thinking, Time Management, Anger Management, Self awareness, effective communication skill, etc. All of its field trainers are modest personalities with multiple skills. Building your Tomorrow Conant Institute is a complete training centre for direct employment where stress is placed on comprehensive development of character and skill. Here, candidates are made to attend lessons and training in motivational training, personality development and career counselling based on academic qualification. What Conant Institute Do? Conant Institute motivates all unemployed youngsters who are registered with Conant Institute to bring out the best in them and help them understand the full potential and possible employment perspective in them. They are prepared in such a way that they can crack any exam and interview at any job interview be it field job or executive job career. Institute consultants take the time to realize their requirements by understanding where they want to be placed in their future professional careers. It spots errors in performance and help them with the improvements one should being about. Training Methods Conant Institute’s training syllabus is designed at par with the altering curriculum and styles of the tests. The classroom field sessions are interactive and fun-filled. This kind of atmosphere boosts trainees’ sense of competition, resulting in improved results. The trainees are offered feedback immediately after their errors are identified. It trains in such a way that the trainees can focus on their studies and face interview boards. The classrooms contain video and audio tools. In case, some trainees miss a class or want to revise specific topics, go through the session at the computer laboratory anytime they desire. They can go through the difficult classes and topics as many times as they want. Group coaching sessions, mentoring, workshops, job interview motivational presentations and one-on-one sessions are other techniques used Conant Institute expert trainers and consultants. These methodologies give rise to analytical and critical thinking of trainees and other special candidates. Conant Institute professional accent trainers help job seeking candidates communicate in a way that is useful in today’s job markets. It’s counselling is done according to their choice of job careers. One-on-one Counselling – One of the most unique styles technique followed by Conant Institute by using the one-on-one counselling. It believes that individual attention to trainees should be handled separately. This helps in guiding the trainees in an appropriate manner. Each and every trainee has his or her own distinct thought process, aspirations, apprehensions, etc. Handling all trainees together in the same way does not address the choice of each trainee. To comprehend the requirements of every student, the one-on-one approach is very constructive. It assists in guiding trainees to the right direction. Conant Institute tries to get an insight into the innermost fears and hopes into trainees through confidential sessions. International standards of one-on-one approach are followed by Conant Instituted, so that trainees can comfortably reveal their thoughts. The trainees are hand-held and continuously counselled throughout the procedure. Starting from enrolling criteria to expectations of the enrolling committee and merit scale, the trainees are made aware of all types of information up-to-date job markets. Conant Institute believes in reaching the highest benchmark of vocational and job-oriented technical education. This is why Conant Institute implements dependable psychometric assessment to help trainees choose a better job career path best for him or her. It assists trainees in their plan of action, so that they can choose a job-path that is bound to prove prosperous. Reputation and trust is built over time and Conant Institute does not compromise on it. It promotes brilliance in the arena of job education and over the years have become the one of the most respected and active organizations in this field. The referral of former trainees is proof that when Conant Institute speaks about professionalism and quality, Conant Institute does not resort to light talk. Its national consultancy tries its level best to prepare trainees completely for a job aspiration their choice in order that they deliver the most ideal service to their employers, so that success touches their feet. Conant Institute motto – Building your Tomorrow is a complete training centre where stress is placed on comprehensive development The Core Life Skills that Conant Institute imparts to its trainees: 1. Critical Thinking – Critical thinking is that boat of soft skillswhich helps to manage time, have control over stress & emotions, empathize with people in trying situations, etc. With new and ever-changing face of challenges, critical thinking training has evolved in feature. By involving trainees in critical situations and asking them to make decisions, provide group presentation, participate in problem solving and analyzing games the art of critical thinking can be instilled in them. Comparison, classification and planning are the helping hands of a critical thinking training session. From the very first day, one can realize a positive change taking place in them. 2. Anger Management Skill – Anger is an expression of emotions. It is featured by both internal and external alterations in you. External expressions are those that are visible by people around you, such as posture change and facial expressions. On the other hand, internal changes refer to change in blood pressure, increased breathing rate, and dry mouth. It is a strong way of expressing his or her displeasure and antagonism towards a particular circumstance, individual or a thing. This emotion sometimes comes with a willingness to harm. It is an amalgamation of behaviour, thoughts and feelings. 3. Coping with Emotions – Life Skill Emotion is the pen that carves our activities. It can be described as the drive and the vitality of the energy in life. Our lives are ruled by emotions. Emotional coping strategies help you face life with ease and dexterity. Importance of Expressing Emotions – It is important to express emotions for both mental and physical well-being. Research has proved that when you keep your emotion to yourself and do not express them, you can suffer from physical troubles. Sadness and inability to express oneself on time often lead to physical ailments like, body aches; change in mental crises like, irritability, anger, lack of concentration and even sleeping problems. It is thus, important that one knows how to cope with emotions. 4. Coping with Stress – Coping with stress is an ability to resist negative feelings. It is the tool, which enhances the possibility of meeting your objectives. Once we learn the techniques of handling stress, we can find life sailing smoothly. The training of coping with stress renders supremacy over depression and low feeling. Stress is the reaction of our body to events, people and to our thought process. It is a very common occurrence and is experienced by everyone. People are usually stressed before an examination or a stage performance. However, there is an interesting feature about stress. It varies from one individual to another. A factor that stresses us might be relaxing to our teammate. Excessive stress can be both physically and mentally harmful for us. When stress keeps occurring periodically, it takes a toll on academic performance, professional excellence and self-esteem. As a result, we get trapped in a vicious circle of self-blame and self-accusation. The most effective way to reduce stress is to recognize the moment when stress levels build up. While stress is often considered the outcome of external occurrences, the happenings themselves might not be stressful. It is the way we react that builds stress. Types of Stress Signals – Stress signals can be divided into 4 types. I. Thoughts – Stress leads to thoughts that create difficulty in reaching decisions and in concentrating. It leads to self-criticism, fear to fail in whatever you do, lack of memory, thinking about the same things again and again plus worrying about the future. II. Behaviour – The behavioural signal of stress falls into speaking problems, stammering, impulsive actions, crying for no reason, laughing nervously, lethargy to talk to anyone, grinding teeth, shouting at loved ones, an increased tendency to smoke and clenching jaw. Some people want to eat a lot, while others have decreased willingness to eat when stressed. Drug abuse and alcoholic tendency are other signals of a stressed out lifestyle. III. Feelings – When you are stressed, you may undergo feelings like, exasperation, nervousness, discomfiture, sulkiness and fright. IV. Physical symptoms – Physical symptoms are characterized by sweaty or cold hands, stiff muscles, backache, neck problems, headache, ache in abdomen, sleep disorder, vulnerability to infections, quick breathing, exhaustion, dry mouth and trembling. 5. Creative Thinking – The trainers of creative thinking implement various techniques to infuse the art of thinking in a unique way. They are the ones who come in close proximity to the trainees to inform them of the different changes taking place in the world scenario and ask them to come up with creative ideas. Trainers often utilize the drop box strategy to teach trainees. According to this style, trainees have to drop chits of paper with their own ideas into the box. The ideas can vary from solutions of problems to innovative game ideas. Creative thinking is a playful and relaxed version of critical thinking. It involves taking risks and looking for many solutions instead of one. When we think creatively, we are also to make mistakes and even come up with solutions that might sound silly. When we are on our way to create an idea, we tend to keep in account everything that strikes our mind. Last, but not the least we evaluate and finally learn from the mistakes that one had committed earlier. 6. Decision Making – Decision-making is the capacity to come to a conclusion that decides our future. With changing needs and circumstances, training for decision making has reached a new height. By understanding the different types of decision-making, we can equip ourselves with one of the most important tools of hard skills. Decision-making can be called the thinking process that helps in making a logical choice from the options at hand. Whenever, you are trying to make an important decision we tend to find the good and bad sides of each and every choice. We should also be able to predict a tentative result, based on which we can choose the best option and effectively make a decision. Decision-making is always followed by a final choice. According to WHO, – “Decision making helps us to deal constructively with decisions about outlives. A good decision would be one whose outcome would be positive or beneficial.” 7. Effective Communication – Effective communication is an important life skill that takes us ahead in life. The training the trainees get at each class alters it’s perspective. Effective communication is referred to as the barter of facts and news among people. This exchange is conducted by means of writing, speaking or explaining through signs. Homo sapiens are social animals. Communication forms an integral part of human life. Communication Skills Required in Working Environment – An attitude to help others in problem, The habit of talking, smiling and being friendly with colleagues, sound idea about product or service we are providing, ability to make perfect utilization of body language, being courteous; remember, it is not our home, readiness to listen, appropriate skills to handle issues. The biggest problem with written communication is that many a time fails to be specific and thus, end up confusing the reader. Written communication should always be specific and short. Components of Effective Communication are: Body language, which is a non- verbal skill Talking, which is a verbal skill, Listening skills etc. 8. Empathy – The training for nurturing empathy gains momentum through teamwork, intolerance towards social comparison, thorough understanding of each other’s personality and monitoring the reaction of trainees to the problems of others. Our very first session assists one in realizing how far life has dragged us away from the beautiful soul we had. Discussing situations, in which we failed to react positively, does this. It does not matter how much we do, but what we do is of significance. Empathy is one of the core soft skills that help you in living a successful life. Empathy is the capability to envision the life of another individual even in conditions about which we are not familiar. This particular life skill assists us in understanding and accepting people who are not like us. 9. Interpersonal Relationship – With interpersonal relationship skills we can emerge as an influential and much liked personality at workplace. Meaning of Interpersonal Relationship – Interpersonal relationship skills are abilities that help us realize our relations with other people, so that we can connect with them in an affirmative manner. It assists us to uphold relationship with family and friends. These two are important sources of social support. Interpersonal relationship is also helpful in building and constructively ending workplace relationships. Amiable relationships are helpful in maintaining both social and mental well being. It is important that a healthy relationship grows among us and our co-workers. 10. Problem Solving – Problem solving is the path that is paved by critical thinking abilities and it makes way for appropriate decision making. Problem solving training is rendered by imparting the importance of motivation, focusing and positive approach among trainees. The moment we start the training session, It realize the importance of problem solving capabilities and also find maturity dawning on trainees. Problem solving is a devise and a skill to find a solution to an issue and attain an objective. It is one of the important skills of life and can be implemented as long as you live. There are several phases in a particular problem solving circle. When we have an objective it is natural to encounter issues. Whether we are in school, college, office or facing other phases of our life; hindrances arise whenever we try to attain a goal. These hindrances are faced with strategies that can assist in overcoming them and attain the objectives. The more problems we have to solve, the more pronounced skills you achieve and the more you prosper in career. 11. Time Management – Time Management is an integral part of soft skills training. The key aspect of time management is first thing first. We need to do what is required and ignore what is not needed. However, we should, work with full diligence. The busy atmosphere of this twenty first century has gifted everyone with a tight schedule, work pressure and an avalanche of family pressure. It is important that we draw a time table to manage all the activities on a daily basis. We can take this approach only when we realize that effective time management is significant to enhance our potential. The procedure of time management involves exercising conscious control over the time spent on certain actions. It is generally done to enhance productivity. For every person money and material are important things. Whether an entrepreneur, a politician or a common man; the importance of the above mentioned resources is realized by all. They all face the problem of unlimited demand of resources and limited supply. Whatever work we do, we have the need to get all resources and get our work done in a given time period. So, you have to use time properly, so that we can enjoy the benefits of the work effectively. We should be efficient enough to manage time with ease. Every task we do involves immense work pressure. We need to condition the pressure. 12. Personality Development – Personal development or personality development is the technique of increasing soft skills that are necessary to bring about success and happiness in trainees lives. Soft skills constitute the platform on which our entire career is built. Thus, our success or failure depends on the skills we choose. If someone’s career starts on a wrong set of skills, they are bound to fail. One may experience success, but it cannot be long-lasting. Therefore, in order to see sustainable success and happiness, Conant Institute needs to develop itself first. Personality development is not just about one dressing or make up skills; it also concerns our flair for communication. 13. Positive Attitude – Positive attitude has the potential to influence everything in one’s life. If he or she follow a positive approach to life, their steps to success will be easier to tread. A positive mind enhances both physical and mental health. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, an attitude is a state of mind in relation to a fact. It is an emotion or feeling in regard to a state or fact. The meaning of the word ‘positive’ indicates something with a favourable effect and distinctly optimistic. Thus, when we are said to have positive attitude we demonstrate optimism and expect. The dictionary goes on to state that the word “positive” can be used as possessing a good effect and is marked by optimism. When we demonstrate a positive attitude, therefore, we are optimistic and expect constructive outcomes. 14. Positive Self-esteem – Self-esteem is the sense of being aware that you are important and so are others. The way you think determines how we behave and feel. It also decides our treatment of others and others’ treatment of us. Self-esteem is the life skill which makes us competent enough to handle the challenges of life and staying happy. It is significant as it helps us enjoy the nitty-gritty of life. Trainees can feel good about themselves. An optimistic approach towards everything assists one to develop enhanced self-esteem. For instance, when one make a mistake, instead of thinking that he is useless; why not consider this mistake as a human error? Self-esteem learning techniques include opportunities to challenge negative thought process. It renders tools to alter existing set of beliefs. When they are aware of their strengths and capabilities, one can realize their goals and take control of their lives. There is, however, an interesting thing about self-esteem. It hardly has anything to do with actual talent. A professional with good talent can have low self-esteem. On the other hand, a professional with average or even low talent, can display high self-esteem. There are several reasons for low self-esteem. A person can suffer from low self-esteem if she experiences a series of failures or is victimized by bad decisions. For instance, let us suppose that we have low confidence. Instead of working on it, we keep mixing with the wrong kind of people. The more pointless you feel, the more susceptible you get to the addiction of drugs. The drugs render a temporary feel-good effect and a boosted confidence level. This is, however, an external force and does not come from within you. Our addiction can lead you to have no self-esteem at all. While on one hand you become depressed to have become a victim of drugs, on the other hand you are in no position to leave it. 15. Self-awareness – When communication and interpersonal skills surrender themselves, self-awareness becomes the key to boost your career. It is the life breath that helps him or her become an empathetic individual and renders their qualities of an effective communicator. Self-awareness makes way for positive relations with colleagues and friends. Self-awareness can be described as the capability in us to recognize ourselves, our character, and our likes, dislikes, and strengths. Self-awareness helps us realize whether we are going through depression or are under some kind of pressure. Self-awareness helps us to react responsibly to various trying situations. It is the tool that makes us understand our own feelings. This author likes to make this point clear with an example – One day, I had taken out my daughter for a walk. She was a small kid of five years and her attitude did not betray the fact. For some reason she was very elated and was loudly singing along the winding road. At a distance, there was a roofless village school. When the school appeared closer, I noticed that a hoarding said ‘silence please.’ My daughter, who was walking few steps ahead of me in her elation, stopped and read the writing. She waited for me to reach her spot before confirming the actual meaning of it. I then explained why the hoarding was placed there. She contemplated my words for some minutes and then went up to the teacher and apologized for her loud singing. Both the teacher and I were surprised to see such behaviour in a small child. When the teacher came to me and praised my daughter’s attitude, my heart was filled with pride. That small girl realized the disturbance that her loud singing might have created for the teacher and the trainees. Therefore, she had apologized and promised that she would never again talk or sing loudly when crossing an educational institution. Here are some features of self-awareness – Self-awareness differs from person to person. Every person has her own private thoughts. These thoughts decide the extent of her self-awareness. There have been many saints who have tried to look inward through meditation. However, very few like the Buddha, have been able to attain total self-awareness. It is the personal recognition of the inner functioning of one’s mind. Self-awareness can be referred to as the core skill. It is a combination of social, coping and thinking skills. It is considered the toughest skill of all the hard skills. Achieving self-awareness – Attaining self-awareness can be easy if we understand that no one understands ourselves better than we do. When we face adverse situations and are embarrassed, we can learn about our deficiencies. It is necessary that we accept our personality and make required changes. When you are aware of our traits we are at a better position to rectify our mistakes and enhance interpersonal relations. It involves all faces of our character like, emotions, thoughts, dislikes, likes, weaknesses, strengths, fears, ambitions, priorities, values, desires, objectives, requirements and many more. We have to love ourselves and understand that we are a good human being. In order to have holistic self-awareness, we need to focus on a pair of aspects. The first aspect is the way we perceive us such as our capabilities, weaknesses, strengths and the other aspect is how others perceive us. Both the aspects render our total picture about ourselves. oOo

December 19, 2015, 4:14 pm

INDIAN YOUTH AND THEIR SOCIAL ISSUES

October 7, 2015, 10:11 am

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Dr.Athiqul H. Laskar

Hindus and Muslims can be neighbors and live happily for years together.  However if a boy from the Muslim family wants to marry a girl from the neighboring Hindu family, all hell breaks loose and swords are drawn out.  Many Indians still follow the age-old practice of matching horoscopes of the prospective bride and the groom before finalizing the marriage.  This superstitious belief shockingly gives more importance to a piece of paper based on the birth time and place of an individual rather than on his character and capabilities.  Well-educated people from well-to-do families resort to such mindless traditions in their personal lives.  Consider the example of Ritu, a teacher at a private B.ed college who allegedly hanged herself when her marriage with Siddharth Sarpal (son of Pradeep kumar Sarpal-Inspector General of Police-law and order) was opposed by the IG on the grounds that their horoscopes did not match.  The girl and the boy had known each other for many years and had studied together. (Times of India -Sourced from PTI, 2010).  Apparently disillusioned with love, the girl took such an extreme step. Instances like these make us think as to what difference has education made in the lives of such people?

If we skim through matrimonial ads of newspapers we’ll find that there are separate sections for each religion, caste and sub-caste.  The government of India has reservations in place everywhere for the scheduled castes, tribes and the backward communities.  However, the rich from the scheduled castes take advantage of such schemes and become richer.  The student from the open category with 80 % might not get even a paid admission in a medical college but a scheduled caste student with a 50% score, will get a paid seat with very little effort, only on the basis of his caste.  Economically these students might have got the same advantages; same school and coaching classes, the same educational material etc.  Such reverse discrimination works against merit, is very harmful to the psyche of the youth and might fill them with alienation and angst towards the government.  Reservations should be meant only for the economically backward.  Caste becomes a major hindrance when it comes to marriages.  Even today, arranged marriage is a social norm and any tendency to deviate from this norm is dealt with severely by many families.  Even in supposedly modern, urban areas, parents try to dissuade children from marrying outside their caste.  We often hear newspaper reports of honor killing by family members where the girl and the boy are killed by their own relatives for marrying outside their caste.  The freedom to choose one’s life partner is almost nil in India and is restricted only to an educated few.  The Asha Saini case, one of the most recent examples of so-called honour killing, happened in Delhi, the capital of India and not in some remote village.  Asha’s father Suraj Kumar Saini and her uncle Om Prakash, who allegedly killed Asha and her boyfriend, have no regrets.  Yogesh was a cab driver and belonged to a different caste (Anand, 2010).  A 23 yr old journalist, Nirupama Pathak, who was a Brahmin by caste, was allegedly killed by her mother for wanting to marry a colleague from a different caste (Kayastha). (NDTV.com, 2010)  The concept of ‘Gotra’ in Hindus is an ancient one.  It means that people belonging to the same ‘Gotra’ or sub-caste are from the same ancestral lineage and should not marry amongst each other as they are equal to siblings.  However, with population growth and mingling of different ‘Gotras’ over time this concept is rendered utterly meaningless.  Recently, the Khap Panchayats or the local village caste panchayats consisting of a few judges who are not even properly educated created a furore by asking the High court to put a ban on same gotra marriages.  The High Court took a progressive step by dismissing this petition.  Even the Supreme Court dismissed a PIL regarding the same. Politicians fear that opposing such Khap Panchayats could result in a loss of their vote-banks and hence do not take a stance.  The Haryana CM Mr. Bhupinder Singh Hooda even went ahead and supported the Khap Panchayats as legitimate informal organizations comparing them with NGOs.  The youth in India have very little to expect from such superstitious organizations that are hell-bent on establishing their terror and such policy-makers who can think about nothing but their power and pelf.

Dowry is a social menace.  According to an article in Time magazine, deaths in India related to dowry demands have increased 15-fold since the mid-1980s from 400 a year to around 5,800 a year by the middle of the 1990s. (Hitchcock, 2001).  In India, for example, more than 5,000 brides die annually because their dowries are considered insufficient, according to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). A newly-wed bride is viewed as a means to enrich the family.  The bride’s family is harassed to pay up or witness their daughter being harassed.  Even well-educated men and their families demand hefty dowries.  In fact the more educated the boy is, the more precious he is in the marriage market.  The root of this issue lies in the mentality that views women as commodities.  This is why so many girl children are killed every year.  They view girls as burdens who will take away their earnings in the form of dowry.  Thus, many women in India face discrimination before marriage and harassment after marriage.  When well-educated high-class people are involved in dowry cases they normally have the capacity to bribe the police and get away with it.  The police usually turn a blind eye to cases of dowry death, citing lack of evidence, especially when politicians or bureaucrats are involved.  Youth has an important role in putting an end to this menace.  Recently, Rani, a bride-to be, performed a sting operation on a prospective groom’s family demanding dowry and released their videos in the media.  The police arrested Nikhilesh Pathak, the groom and his father for perpetuating this crime.  Rani’s family has since then been inundated with calls for marriage proposals by men who admired her courage.  So all hope is not lost.  However Nikhilesh Pathak who is out on bail is shameless enough to threaten legal action against Rani and her family (Indiatoday.com, 2010).  Many among today’s youth are responsible and sensible enough to support the courage of women like Rani.  However, a few like Mr. Pathak, still sell themselves.  The Indian youth both men and women today need to take a sensible stance against dowry.  Any amount of legislation cannot remedy a social evil that is deeply entrenched in the mindset of the society.  Rani was lucky to have been educated enough to understand that technology can help her.  Her courage was born out of her education.  A majority of women however steer clear of such courageous deeds due to fear of social ostracism.

Education, if not the solution is at least a key to a solution.  The young as well as the elders need to understand that human relationships are far more important than caste-marks and love is the last and only hope for mankind. (athiqul16@yahoo.co.in)

 

Underdevelopment and Identity Crisis of emerging youth

October 7, 2015, 10:08 am

Underdevelopment and Identity Crisis of emerging youth

CIMG5062Dr.Athiqul H. Laskar

“In the Human Development Index (HDI), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Statistical Update 2008 ranks India at 132 out of the 179 countries. At 116 out of the 157, India also ranks poorly in the Gender Development Index. While India falls under the “Medium Human Development” category, all the developed countries are bracketed under the “High Human Development” category. HDI is based on purchasing power parity, life expectancy at birth, and education levels.” (IBN Live, 2009).  Basic nutrition for children is still at a remarkably low level.  According to the UNICEF surveys of 2003-2008, about 48 % of children under the age of five are moderately or severely underweight.    No one knows how many poor children might be dying every day on the streets of ‘Modern India’ due to hunger and professional hazards like begging near the signals.  In India, women are generally treated as inferior to men.  This may not be the case amongst urban educated population.  It is shocking to note that India is the only country among the major nations of the world where the ratio of women to men is consistently low.  A girl child however takes away dowry from her parents’ house when she gets married.  Societal pressures force parents of girls to give dowry and thus the birth of a girl child is considered a misfortune.  The Christian Medical Association of India conducted a case study among children between the age groups 0-6 years, in certain government and the private hospitals in New Delhi. (TOI, 2005)  They concluded that when the first male child is born there is no discrimination against the next child irrespective of its gender.  However, when the first child is a girl, the second female birth is discriminated against for want of a male child.  According to the WHO statistics of 2002, in India, the probability of children dying under the age of 5 was 87 per thousand for male children and 95 per thousand for female children.  These stark realities are shameful on the part of a country claiming its place in the soon-to-be ‘First World’ powers. Education is one of the basic necessities of civilized human life.  If we want to see ourselves anywhere equal to the developed countries, we must ensure that the masses have access to quality education.  India boasts of a breath-takingly fast developing economy.  On the 1st of April 2010, the Indian Prime Minister Mr. Manmohan Singh launched a programme to extend schooling to about 10 million children who are outside the education system.  He has pledged not to let financial constraints get in the way of its implementation which is estimated to cost around $38 billion. (Alzajeera.net, 2010).  Initiatives like these will go a long way in promoting youth development.

The UN General Assembly, on 18th December 2009, adopted a resolution proclaiming the year commencing on 12th August 2010 as the International Year of Youth, with the theme “Dialogue and Mutual Understanding”.  The year will coincide with the 25th anniversary of the first International Youth Year in 1985 on the theme “Participation, Development and peace”. (WHO, 2010).  It is heartening to see that the United Nations Organization is keen on promoting youth development.  When wide-spread poverty, underdevelopment and unemployment breaks the backbone of an economy, the worst affected are the youth of a country.  Youth is a phase of energy, vitality and vigour in one’s life.  It’s a phase of dreaming, achieving, succeeding and celebrating.  If the young in any country are gainfully employed they can satisfy the needs of their family.  Happy families in turn, make a happy nation.  However, when a large chunk of them are denied the opportunity of skill development, or job-satisfaction, the result is large-scale dissatisfaction and frustration.  Abraham Maslow in his theory of self-actualization clearly stated the importance of basic needs first and then the higher needs of education and self-actualization.  However poverty stops the youth from reaching out to the higher interests of life.  They either become too complacent and content try to survive as long as possible by adjusting themselves to their low motivational environment.  However, many a times when the frustration levels cross certain limits, self-destructive behavior is resorted to.  Researchers in New Zealand conducted a study to find out the relation between unemployment and suicides.  With a database of over two million people from the 1991 Census, they found that “men and women aged 25 to 44 years, and men aged 45 to 64 who were unemployed were two to three times as likely to commit suicide as their employed peers.” (BBC NEWS, 2003). Self-destructive behavior also includes substance abuse for e.g. alcohol addiction, drug abuse etc.  When youngsters don’t have the means to pay for the drugs, they resort to crime like stealing, and violence.  It should be a red alert time for the government if the youth of the country resort to fatalistic tendencies like drug abuse and suicide.  Many youngsters, alienated due to poverty and unemployment feel the heat of injustice and may join terrorist or naxalite outfits.  They feel they can have their revenge this way and do not fear death because they anyways do not see any point in living in poverty.  They may view their terrorist activities as revolutionary ones and it is easy for terrorist groups with vested interests to woo such impoverished youth and brainwash them against the system.  They usually catch them young and fill their impressionable minds with the ideology of hatred.  Thus, we see that, poverty and unemployment are majorly responsible for the identity crisis faced by the youth.  Their going astray is actually a struggle for attaining identity albeit in a wrong direction.

Let us compare our situation with that of America.  According to a research conducted in 2004 by Robert Rector and Dr. Kirk Johnson, poverty in the Unites States of America has different dimensions when compared to other developing nations.  When we talk about poverty in Asian, African and other developing worlds, we picture hungry, half-clothed people out on the streets.  However, when we analyze the situation of the people classified as “poor” in America, we don’t find them matching these criteria.  “46% of the “American Poor and underdevelpment” actually own their homes and the average home size is a three bedroom house with one and a half baths, a garage and a porch or a patio”   It is understood that the housing conditions for the “poor” people in America are actually better than that compared to the world.   “According to the USDA, some 6.9 million Americans or 2.4 percent of the population were hungry at least once during 2002.”  Thus, hunger is a short term and episodic concept among the “American poor”.  What is judged as poverty in the U.S. is actually comfortable living by Indian standards.  However last year global economic melt-down hasn’t spared U.S.  Hunger and poverty statistics have gone up in the United States of America as well.  However, the government has certain measures to keep hunger in check.  For e.g. Charity initiatives like the soup kitchens and ‘Feeding America’- It is basically a food bank that provides food to more than 37 million low-income people facing hunger in America, including 14 million children and 3 million seniors. (Feeding America, 2010).  The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics placed the unemployment rate of the U.S. at 9.5 for the year 2010.  According to Wikipedia.com, this was unemployment rate in India in 2009.  So India and the U.S. are not far from each other as far as unemployment is concerned.  However, what distinguishes the American situation form ours is the quick implementation of laws.  The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was passed in February 2009 with an aim of saving or creating 1.2 to 2.8 million jobs and according to their estimates they intended to save or create 3.7 million jobs by September 2010.  The legislation not only helped people keep their jobs but also the unemployed workers were provided basic health care to ensure minimum physical and psychological damages due to unemployment.  The Obama Government with its emphasis on less dependence on outsourcing is surely headed in the right direction and will succeed in creating better future for American youths in the future.

 

Issues of Youth-Parent Relationship

October 7, 2015, 10:01 am

Issues of Youth-Parent Relationship

 Dr.Athiqul H. Laskar

With more than 60% of India under the age of 30, this country has a young population that makes way for an interesting study of how the Indian youth relates to ideologies of their older generation. It is the purpose of this study not only to examine where the youth stand today, as compared to their yesteryears’ counterparts, but also to assess how dynamics of this changing world has altered their relationship with their parents/elders. Before I make any attempt to offer my perspective on the above issue, I would like to clarify that this article cannot encapsulate the crux of an entire generation absolutely precisely. However, it is certainly within the scope to offer a balanced representation of a fairly large cross-section of today’s youth, be it in India or abroad.

More often than not, there are sociological perspectives that apply sweeping adjectives, such as ‘rebellious’, ‘non-conformist’, ‘apathetic’, ‘morally degraded’, ‘brash’, ‘disrespectful towards elders’, to today’s youth; in fact, there are hundreds of similar tags that are attached to the youth. It is undoubtedly true that a lot has changed in our world, in so far as how the current generation relates to its socio-cultural environment. For instance, while the older generation were very rooted to the family unit, and turned to their elders for advice when it was time to take important life-altering decisions, the youth are charged with a somewhat ‘I-know-what-I-want-from-my-life’ kind of attitude. Moreover, for today’s youth, their peers’ opinion matters much more to them than that of their parents. In such a scenario, parents find it hard to turn a blind eye to what they feel might be a ‘dangerous path’ being treaded by their children. It is natural for parents to get anxious over their children’s welfare; they want to protect their children from any pitfalls that the latter might encounter along the way. After all, they are convinced (and rightly so) that no amount of knowledge can substitute their wisdom, which has stemmed from age and experience. In their unwillingness to accept their children’s new-found freedom, parents become skeptical of the company that the youngster is keeping, and their sense of judgment, behaving like a moral police most of the time. The ‘good old days in which we grew up’ is a common sentiment amongst the elderly. Needless to say, children do not take too kindly to what they consider ‘undue interference’ from their parents, and land up retaliating. This ultimately leads to the ‘I-know-what-I-am-doing’ refrain. All this boils down to nothing but a never-ending tussle between youngsters and their parents.

The above scenario is typical of the early 1990s. This was the time when, as a result of globalization, there was a sudden change in social values. Opening up of the economy led to an increased access not just to foreign products, but also to foreign culture and values. This unprecedented ‘cultural diffusion’ led our youth to a somewhat confused state of mind, in terms of where their ambitions lay. All of a sudden, bizarre things like getting one’s navel or temples pierced, and studding it with rings of all shapes and sizes, became ‘cool’. To add to this, the youth of this period was overawed by the sudden spurt in spending power, leading to rise in consumerism.

What should the parents have done 2 decades ago?  Firstly, they should have denied the children easy access to all luxuries. This way, the latter would have respected the privileges they had, besides acknowledging their father’s hard work that had gone into earning all that wealth. A good step in this direction could have been for the parents to take their children around the less privileged localities, maybe even made them do some community service, to reinforce how fortunate they were to have all that they did, sensitizing them towards the plight of the less fortunate lot of people in this world.

Moving further, now that we have entered the new millennium, the picture of today’s youth is not all that dark and gloomy any more. In the present times, it would be unfair to perpetuate stereotypes, and tag the youth as those belonging to the ear-nose-navel pierced generation of youngsters, who know nothing better than how to blindly ape their western counterparts.  No doubt, there are still significant differences in the perspectives of today’s youth vis-a-viz their parents, but this is unavoidable.

A decade ago, globalization largely led to blind aping of the West; today it means that the youth have become a near-perfect blend of the East and the West; while, on one hand, they seem all too ready to embrace the modernization of the western world, on the other hand, they are also not embarrassed to adopt traditional values, such as participating in most of the family’s religious functions, greeting their elders in a traditional way, touching their feet, etc. With this dual cultural passport, today’s youth are more mature, adaptable and tolerant of those who may be different from them.

This is not to say that there are absolutely no deviations between the youth’s perspectives and that of their parents; expecting such absolute harmony is expecting a little too much. There is certainly a reasonable amount of tussle between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’’ like the Swedish saying that says, “If the Stone Age children had obeyed their parents we would still be living in the Stone Age”. But the scene is a lot better than it was some time back.

Parents of today’s youth (assuming that the term ‘youth’ includes all those in the 15-30 age group) were born sometime between 1950 and 1970. They have tasted much more turbulent times with their older generations. As a result, they have become more tolerant towards their children than their own parents were, decades ago. They are quick to understand that communication gap with their children will yield nothing more than emotional issues for the latter.

Therefore, today’s parents make all possible efforts to make communication more fearless and democratic than they themselves had the luxury of. They realize that the erstwhile “You-must-do-this-because-I-say-so” approach does no go well with today’s youth. Such efforts on the parents’ part engender trust amongst the youth, who find it easier to confide in their parents, whenever the need arises.

Intrinsic American culture endorses that their youth be weaned away from parents’ decision-making influence latest by the age of 18 years, whereas Indian social conditioning is rather different. In this regard, I with 38 years of living and working in America wish to highlight one point of difference between the Indian youth and my American counterparts. While the former seek this independence, albeit still going back to their parents every now and then, it is not very common to see the latter have an equivalent sense of cohesion towards the basic family unit, once they have been weaned away. An Indian teenager’s attempt to ‘break free’ is looked down upon as ‘callousness’, ‘irresponsible attitude’ and ‘insensitivity towards aging parents’ needs’. In this context, simply visiting parents on weekends or holidays is not enough; children (particularly male) are expected to keep their identity firmly entwined with that of their families and communities. It is interesting to note that here, ‘family’ constitutes not just the immediate family (parents and siblings) but, in a lot of cases, the wider family consisting of uncles and aunts as well as their respective families also. Perhaps, this acts as a cementing force in case of the Indian youth.

So, in a nutshell, I can safely arrive at a fair conclusion (even if it is not unanimous) that the current generation is not so much in jeopardy, as feared by some. This is a generation that is liberated and confident, stretching their minds to discover new worlds and new horizons. The best part is that an encouragingly large part of them is fortunate enough to receive parental support, which is a welcome change from the past.

 

 

US School shooting – Juvenile Crime and Its Dangers

May 7, 2015, 2:35 am

Juvenile crime, formally known as juvenile delinquency, is a term that defines the participation of a minor in an illegal act. A delinquent is a person who is less than 18 years of age and commits an act which would have been called a crime had he or she been an adult. Legal systems generally treat such cases differently than that of adults considering, of course, the severity of the crime and how it has been committed. Delinquents are usually sent to juvenile detention centers and trialed at special courts.
For the past few years, juvenile crime has been rampant. The average age for the act of first crime has dropped noticeably. About 60 to 80 % of the adolescents and pre-adolescents get involved in offenses like status offense, property crimes or even violent crimes. The percentage of juvenile delinquents is increasing at an alarming rate and is no less than a global concern today.
The recent Connecticut school incident in the United States of America has shaken people all over the world. 20 students (12 girls and 8 boys of 6 or 7 years of age) and 6 adults died when a gunman of 20 years of age, Adam Lanza, started firing at Sandy Hook Elementary School at Connecticut, about 60 miles from New York. He later killed himself after murdering his mother. Lanza was found dead next to a semi-automatic 223-caliber Bushmaster rifle, three guns and two pistols, all of which is said to have belonged to his mother.
Lanza walked into his mother’s classroom at around 9:30 am and fired openly. Cops said that a “mind-numbing” number of cartridges were found on the floor of the school.
Carver, the medical officer, who performed the autopsies on seven of the victims, said the wounds were possibly caused by a “long weapon”, which on being asked by journalists, he confirmed to have been made by a rifle.
Juvenile crime has also seen a spurt in India during the last decade. The chief factors responsible for increasing juvenile delinquency in India are peer pressure, rich lifestyle, curiosity and parents’ indifference. The rich-poor divide in India is considered to be instrumental in promoting youth crime. While children from poor families take up criminal ways to support themselves and their families, children from rich families do it for fun or some extra pocket money! The revenge factor behind juvenile offenses is also not to be ignored.
The last decade has seen a huge leap in the rate of juvenile offenders in India. According to a recent report by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), criminal cases involving teenagers has gone up from 0.8% in 2001 to 11.8% in 2011. Crimes committed by people below the age of 18 have increased by 85% between 2001 and 2011.
It has further said that children arrested under Indian Penal Code and Special and Local Laws has increased from 30,303 in 2010 to 22,887 in 2011. In 2011, the overall involvement of children in crimes had leaped by 10.5% under IPC and 10.9% under SLL. Burglary, theft, wounding and riots form the majority of these crimes. Kidnapping and adduction cases involving juvenile offenders have increased from 354 in 2008 to 823 in 2011. Another important factor that NCRB has noticed is the increasing number of girl children being involved in crimes. The percentage has increased from 5.1% in 2010 to 5.8% in 2011.
Given that India is known to value friends and family, instances of children committing crimes against their own families come as a rude shock. These include children belonging to rich families with all comforts available as well as children working in factories. In September 2011, a school boy plotted the murder of his grandmother along with a friend. He was smart enough not to leave any finger prints on the murder-site and mislead the police into believing it to be a case of robbery.
On March 8, 2012, a teenager, Tejas Makwana, was arrested for stealing gold worth Rs. 11.5 lakhs from his grandmother’s home in January for taking his girlfriend out on a trip.
On April 12, 2012, a speeding teen biker ran over an on-duty policeman fracturing his arm.
On April 26, 2012, Faheem Qureshi was arrested for killing his mother by hitting her head with a metal vessel. The crime was committed because she refused to give money to a drunken Faheem for buying more bottles of alcohol.
Another case happened on April 23, 2012 when a teenage boy killed his maternal aunt for disclosing the fact to his mother that he had borrowed 50 bucks. Consequently, his mother thrashed him and in a fit of revenge, he killed his aunt with a pair of scissors.
A very recent case in October 2012 involved a 16 year old Delhi boy who killed a 4 year old boy. He stabbed the victim over 30 times with a pair of scissors.
Ever-increasing population, poor economic conditions, poor literacy rate and unhealthy family conditions like violence and alcoholism etc. influence the upbringing of a child and determine whether a child will finally turn into a criminal. The present social disorganization is one of the major reasons for pushing children into the world of crime. Families are isolated in the present times, with both parents working and the child left alone at home. This results in the development of grudges against parents in children and a growing intimacy with friends. This makes them vulnerable to getting into bad company which motivates them to commit crimes.
The sharp distinction between rich and old children also attracts children to criminal activities because it offers quick money with which they can satisfy their wants.
Some children commit crime for the sake of it. They like to experience the thrill involved in the act. It also lends them a macho image among friends. Adolescent boys often commit crime just to prove their masculinity before friends.
Substance abuse is another significant reason for increasing juvenile delinquency in India. Illegal drugs are costly for which they need money. Crimes like thefts and burglary gives them quick money with which they buy drugs and alcohol.
Certain mental disorders that involve difficulties in the regulation of emotions and impulsive behavior make children prone to criminal behavior. Even depression can lead a person to adopt criminal ways. It acts as a vent to one’s suppressed anger and aggression. Treating such disorders can help them keep away from criminal activities. But the question is who will take the responsibility of such children?
Such children going to school makes the other children in the school vulnerable to their criminal impulses and whims. Such a child can fatally hurt a fellow student in a fit of anger or hold an entire school hostage for getting attention and to prove his worth. Much worse, they can motivate other children into pursuing their criminal ways.
Juvenile delinquency can be stopped at an early stage, provided care is taken both at home and at school. Parents and teachers play a significant role in nurturing the mind of a child. Instead of labeling them as ‘delinquents’, steps must be taken to rectify them by rectifying the errors in their lives, involving both social and psychological. Nobody is a born criminal, it is circumstances that make him or her so. Hence, the solution lies in mending the circumstances. This incident spells nothing but endless violence. What could have driven a 20 year boy to unleash such terror? This brings us to the question of the frame of mind those delinquents’ posses. (Writer can be reached at – www.lifeskillsathiqul.com017 )

How socially responsible are our youth?

May 7, 2015, 2:33 am

“Today’s youth are the leaders of tomorrow” – is an oft-repeated sentiment that flashes across our minds whenever a discussion hovers around ‘Generation Y’. Does this generation of the Millennial really have what it takes to shoulder such meaningful responsibility?
Before I begin yet another thread of this seemingly never-ending debate, I wish to clarify that it is not my intention to pass an absolute judgment, be it in favor of, or against, an issue under scrutiny. Let us look at such open-ended discussions with utmost objectivity, giving credit where due.
It is true that we often hear stories of youngsters spending their life in wasteful pursuits, such as indulging in narcotics, drugs, and even sexual abuse. The high incidence of deadly diseases like HIVAIDs testifies this. Going a step ahead, youth violence and caste-related crimes, such as honor killings, are on an unprecedented rise. A few years back, I was shocked to hear the news of an ‘educated criminal’, an alumnus of the prestigious Indian Institute of Technology, (IIT), who had taken to the business of drug trafficking, to earn quick and easy money. This is a sign of declining mental and emotional health.
It is, undoubtedly, heart-rending to hear such stories about the youth. However, would it be fair to pass the all-sweeping verdict that the morals of today’s youth have decayed to the extent of being in some deep irretrievable abyss? Observing youth trends around me, I am rather optimistic. I strongly feel that today’s Gen-Y is not just more informed, but also more socially responsive, as compared to those of Gen-X.
My optimism stems from the hoards of young people I see around me, who are socially aware and committed towards making a difference in the community they live in. An encouragingly large part of the current generation takes pride in making efforts towards embalming our planet’s future. They have risen above boundaries of nationality, and are striving for environmental protection. There are young professionals who spearhead initiatives, such as ‘No plastics’, ‘Say NO to polybags’ drives, within their home and office space. These are the young people for whom the mantra is not just about being ‘cool’, but about becoming ‘eco-cool’. Not just the urban youth but also those from semi-rural or rural areas are equally well-informed and sensitive to the needs of our world. We have a growing breed of environmentally-conscious agriculturists, who play an assertive role in saving the planet for future generations. After all, is this not responsible behavior?
The scenario is equally encouraging even from the societal perspective. A few weeks ago, I was pleasantly to read about “The Bharat Uday Mission”, an innovative social service initiative that finds its roots in IIT Delhi. The idea behind this initiative is to form a political party, led by some of our youngsters, that promises us not only an economically developed India, but also a spiritually enlightened nation. It speaks volumes about the community spirit of today’s youth. To what extent this noble mission actually sees the light of the day is a different aspect, but the very fact that the thought of making such a difference has germinated in young minds of India is, in itself, a commendable sentiment. Equally commendable is another fact that these young IITians are the very cream of the country’s student population – the most employable amongst the country’s youth. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that they may have taken to the route of community service for want of job prospects.
Another streak of responsible behavior I have seen in that more and more young people are coming ahead to vote, voicing their concerns about the government that deserves to run our Democracy. In this context, I am reminded of one of my neighbor’s son in Gawahati, a professional in a renowned consultancy firm. Despite demands of a challenging full-time career, he was actively involved in a Mumbai-based Church Youth group that champions for social causes across the city. Post-November 2008, when Mumbai was shaken by one of the worst terrorist attacks in the history of India, his Youth Group (consisting of other youngsters, all of whom are equally busy with their professional obligations) got together, and committed themselves to engendering positive change amongst the youth voters as regards the efficacy of our democratically-elected political leaders. This small group of youngsters managed a huge turnaround, at least within their constituency of Bandra, Mumbai, Defence colony, New Delhi, Gawahati, Assam, where the voter turnaround increased by almost 5%. By investing their time and efforts in shaking the youth out of their complacency and indifference towards election times, these youngsters have displayed nothing but responsible behavior. All the above clearly shows that the immense reserves of energy that our youth has, is being channelized in the right direction.
If there are influences, such as the negative impact of globalization and incessant westernization, plaguing young minds, there are numerous positive influences as well, which offset the former. The community-related responsiveness we see in young minds today may be largely attributed to the guidance of informed parents as well as to our rapidly-evolving education system. Professional institutes like B-schools, encourage community service amidst their educational culture, making the concept of “Corporate Social Responsibility” (CSR) an integral part of their curricula. This was unheard of earlier, when education primarily meant imparting/absorbing bookish knowledge. While, earlier, businesses were basically concerned with the “profit motive” only, bottom-line profits are not the only yardstick to measure business success. Today, the CSR sentiment has become a necessity for their sustainability.
Although western influences are seeping into Indian soil, young Indian minds are absorbing not just western fashion trends but also the spirit of self-dependence. A sure sign of this self-dependence can be seen in college-going youngsters. They are becoming less dependent on their parents, in so far as funding their own education is concerned, even if this means taking education loans or working part-time. To this end, they are more open to exploring new and hitherto untried opportunities. Hence, there are more and more youth who are treading the path of Entrepreneurship, which, in turn, creates employment opportunities and generates wealth.
Talking of parental influence, they too make it a point to introduce their children to the concept of volunteering at an early age. The spirit of ‘giving’, and that of being able to make a difference in others’ lives, is inculcated by allowing the children to interact with the less privileged humans. Recently, I was impressed with my neighbor’s parenting skills in Shillong, when I learnt that, just a day before her daughter’s 10th birthday; she had taken the little girl to donate her old clothes, toys and other knick-knacks at a nearby missionary orphanage. A significant dividend that comes from such volunteering is that youngsters get a sense of self-esteem; that which comes from being a positive force in the society that has given them so much. In this world fraught with wars and communal strife, such a mindset is the need of the hour.
With the above debate, I feel that it would be a rational judgment not to deride the youth as ‘monsters’ because of sporadic episodes. If, in the infamous ‘Manu Sharma-Jessica Lall case’, it was a youth who is chastised for having wronged a woman, again it is the youth that had, so ardently, stood against the crime. Such facts encourage me to believe that today’s youth have the skills to navigate their lives out of rough waters.

CIMG5062

Coping Concept & Strategies to deal with Different Ways of Emotions

May 7, 2015, 2:20 am

It is important that a person learns how to deal with daily emotions. She has to cope with different kinds of situations and stay positive. In order to understand how to handle different situations in a positive way, we have to understand the meaning of emotion.
Emotion – Meaning
Emotion is a complicated psychological condition that includes three separate elements. They are physiological response, subjective experience and expressive response.
Emotions are divided into two categories – basic and complex.
# Basic emotions
There are seven basic emotions. They are fear, anger, contempt, sadness, disgust, happiness and surprise. It is said that basic emotions are manifested by facial expressions.
# Complex emotions
Emotions that do not occur automatically and are self-conscious in nature are called complex emotions. Complex emotions include pride, shame and guilt. Self-evaluation and self-reflection lead to complex emotions.
Changes and reaction
Emotion is attributed by changes in both internal and external changes. Internal changes include quick breathing & pulse, dry mouth, increase in blood pressure, etc. External changes, on the other hand are exhibited by expressions on the face. For instance, when a person is happy, the area around her eyes is wrinkled, the muscle around her eyes tightens, the corners of her lips are lifted diagonally and her cheeks are also raised.
Emotions vary with former experience and age. People do not follow a constant pattern all the time. Reactions often depend on emotional and physical condition of that person.
Happiness – Positive Emotion
Happiness is an emotional condition of well-being, which is expressed by positive emotions ranging from fulfillment to extreme joy. Various kinds of psychological, biological, philosophical and religious approaches have tried to describe happiness as well as realize its source.
A positive minded person is one who can keep her emotions controlled and not get carried away by her emotions.
Bringing emotional well being
A person can lead an emotionally healthy life by behaving in a positive way.
Mentioned below are some situations that bring about irritation or anger. The examples are followed by techniques that help in dealing positively.
# Problems in relationship
• You have been treated badly in relationship and you become angry. You express yourself through irritation, violence and start ignoring the person who has hurt you.
• The reason for this kind of behavior is a past experience where you remember a negative attitude you had experienced and had kept silent. For example, you recollect an incident when your parent had beaten you for no reason.
Coping strategies
Your present reaction is inappropriate and you should understand that you should forget the past and live the present with a different mindset. You should realize that this is a different phase of life and the past should not interfere in it to make things tough for you and those surrounding you.
# Problem with a friend
You have some problems` with a friend and you are angry. You shout at her because you are afraid that you might face trouble. You are angry because of the attitude of your friend.
Coping strategies
This is not an appropriate behavior and you should be assertive in your request when you say that you cannot comply with her.
# Problem managing time
• You have a lot of responsibilities and you do not know which work to do at what time. You are in a mess and express yourself through pessimism plus anger.
• This you do by shutting doors with a loud bang and closing drawers so hard that they break.
• You are annoyed as you missed an important task because you had to give priority to another task at hand.
Coping strategies
This is not the right way to act and you should try to behave in a more sober way. You should be meticulous and plan things before hand, by keeping in account the distractions.
# Problem in education and career
• You are having issues in education and career. You get worried and express yourself by binge eating.
• This kind of behavior is caused by the anxiety and apprehensions about future.
Coping strategies
Worrying is not the solution to this problem and neither is overeating. Instead, you should take the problem as a challenge and try to get hold of the right guidance to achieve in success in education or career.
# Problem with eating habits
• If you are going through issues related to food habits and hygiene, you will get irritated. As a result, you might be violent and impolite with you family members.
• This kind of attitude manifests when your food habits are not proper and you do not maintain hygiene.
Coping strategies
This behavior is not desirable and you have to be positive when dealing with such issues. You should follow a proper diet and if required, you can visit a dietician. Healthy food habits are necessary for maintaining emotional well-being. Maintaining hygiene is important to stay well and not fall sick.
Anger – Negative Emotion
It is normal to be angry, in fact at times it is considered a healthy way to express yourself. However, anger that gets out of hand becomes destructive. Anger is expressed through a vast range that starts with slight irritation and ends with excessive rage. Anger enhances heart rate and blood pressure level. You can be angry about a person, a certain practice, an object, laws, political decisions and past events that cause pain when reminisced.
Anger is required to sustain in the world. But, you have to keep it under control, so that you don’t start attacking anyone who hurts your sentiments. Anger can be dealt with three specific techniques. They are as follows.
• Suppressing
You can think about positive things and change anger into productive behavior. However, if anger is not converted into productive thinking, but kept inside; it can lead to hypertension or even depression. This results in emotional and physical harm besides making you hostile towards others.
• Expressing
Expression is considered the healthiest form of dealing with anger. It involves a non-aggressive attitude and assertive nature.
• Calming
You can try to calm yourself down by bringing down the heart rate and allowing anger to ebb away.
Manage Anger – Tips
• You should ask yourself if the reason to get angry will be valid in the next ten years. You will realize that you don’t need to be hostile.
• You should accept the fact that whatever happened, made you upset. Also identify the fact that getting angry is not the final solution.
• You should recollect if you have ever done something similar with another person and how she reacted.
• Now, you have to think how you are reacting and if your reaction is really required. May be the person did not do anything intentionally and did not want to harm you.
• You can take a walk to bring down your anger and think something more constructive. You can also count till ten before reacting. This may not reduce your anger, but it can reduce the intensity of what you are going to say or do.
Developing skills in life that helps you deal with emotional outbursts is important. These skills help to take the right track in life. Certain things that you come across may not be under your control; however, the way you react is under your control. It is thus, significant that you identify your emotions and realize techniques to control them through Life Skills.

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Coping Concept & strategies to deal with Stress

May 7, 2015, 2:18 am

Stress and ways to handle it
Have you ever been so stressed that you felt unwell, could not concentrate on anything and suffered mental depression? These things occur when stress takes a toll on you.
To understand how to deal with stress, we have to understand the meaning of stress, different types of stress and techniques for stress management.
Stress – Meaning
Stress is the way, in which your body responds to demand. It is caused by both positive and negative experiences. When you are stressed by the activities in your surroundings, chemicals are released into blood. As a result, your strength and energy increases, which is good if you are in any kind of danger. However, if you are stressed due to an emotional upheaval and there is no way to let out the extra energy triggered by the chemicals, it is adverse for your body and mind.
Stress – Types
There are three kinds of stress. They are acute stress, episodic stress and chronic stress.
Stress – Symptoms
The following are some symptoms of stress.
• Stammering
• Frequent headaches, chest pain and backache
• Muscle spasms
• Sweating and blushing
• Dry mouth
• Rashes
• Constipation
• Frequent urination
• Excessive anger
• Reduced appetite
• Sleep disorders
• Forgetfulness and confusion
• Feeling lonely and hopeless
• Feeling no interest to look good
• Less efficiency
• Quick speech
• Isolation
• Substance abuse
• Shopping without any necessity
Stress – Sources
There are four main sources of stress. They are social, environmental, cognitive-emotional and physiological.
# Social
These are psychological stressors that become active when there is demand of skills and time. Speaking in public, interviews, conflict with colleagues, work presentations, financial issues, etc are social sources.
# Environmental
Physical stressors that affect five senses of the body like, noise, pollution, weather, traffic, etc are environmental sources.
# Cognitive-emotional
Cognitive-emotional stress is caused by thoughts. Your brain conducts an assessment of stress and mobilizes the defense mechanism of the body. The functioning of the stress assessment mechanism decides whether you remain relaxed or stressed.
# Physiological
These are physical stressors created at different phases of life, such as adolescence, menopause, lack of nutrition, lack of sleep, aging, etc. Headache, depression, stomach problems and muscle tension are also part of physiological stressors.
Stress Management – Tips
Negative stress is managed by different techniques. You should follow the way that suits you the best.
# Speak out
If you are stressed, you should express it. Keeping feelings suppressed increases stress. You should share your feelings, so that someone close to you can help you find out a solution out of the problem. It may sound embarrassing, but it is better to seek help as soon as the problem takes place in order to avoid more serious problems later on. You can also write down the issues you are facing. This helps in looking at the problem in a new way and you can clarify it yourself without getting stressed.
# Take deep breath
Stress leads to rapid breathing which results in increased anxiety. You should breath slowly through your nose and exhale through your mouth. Make sure that the inhaling is deep, so that the lower abdomen lifts and falls as you breathe.
# Give importance to comfort
Try to make yourself as comfortable as possible. If you are sitting in a place that is making you uncomfortable, you should shift to a more appropriate and cozy place.
# Allow yourself a break
When you realize that you are stressed, take a break. You can take a walk. It is always not possible to leave the stressful environment physically. At such times, you can take resort to imagination. Close your eyes and imagine yourself in a place that makes you happy. Explore the smell, taste and sound that you prefer.
# Look after yourself
You should have a healthy diet. This helps to lead a happy life. A healthy life means a happy mind and an active body. It is better to avoid excessive sugar and caffeine intake. A healthy body leads to a happy mind.
# Practice physical exercise
Physical activity checks the impact of stress. Therefore, whenever you are stressed, engage in some physical activity. If you like doing a physical activity, make time for it every day. Spending time with little children and gardening are also considered good stress busters.
# Plan and manage time
You should make a schedule which you can follow and which helps you prioritize activities. When you plan the schedule, you should also keep in account the distractions you might face. The schedule should have a section where you devote time for stress reduction. If you try to achieve everything at a go, you may end up losing everything. You should do one thing at a time and check out the task already completed. Try to complete the most important work first. If there is a stressful work, finish it off at the beginning, so that you have less stress for the rest of the day.
# Stay happy
Laughter is good for health. Research says that while frowning involves forty three muscles, smiling involves only seventeen. Inculcate sense of humor and do not get angry when someone jokes about you. You should, in fact nurture the habit of making fun at yourself. You should share funny incidents with friends and colleagues.
# Do not confront when people do not comply
It is not necessary that people will always listen to you and abide by your instructions. Your colleagues or friends may have other opinions. Getting angry and stressed at such times is not useful. You should learn to compromise and cooperate. This leads to lower stress level.
# Stay within your limits
If you are stressed about something, try to realize if you can solve the situation. If you cannot, there is no need to think about it. If you can solve it, do what you can and leave it. There is no need to get stressed about what else you should have done. If you alter the situation, do not feel bad. In life, there are many things that you cannot control. Therefore, there is no use worrying about it, unless you can really do anything worthwhile.
# Search for positive things in your surrounding
It is easy to notice negative things around you. Try to notice six positive things. It might be difficult at first or might appear very small. However, looking out for good things constantly adds up to the good things in your life. Positive things lead to positive ideas. Your perspective changes and you feel energized.
# Cry if you have to
Crying is a natural reaction. If there is anything that hurts you, cry. It releases stress and checks nervous disorder. It can also prevent headache or other physical disorders related to stress.
Stress is experienced by everyone at one point of time or another. While some stress types are useful, most of them are harmful. You have to keep in mind that all circumstances are not under your control. Smoking and drinking alcohol is not a solution to come out of stressful situations. Coping with stress becomes significant when it starts taking a toll on mental or physical health. You should make use of Life Skills that make you strong enough to handle stress.
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Youth Policy And Addressing Their Emerging Issues. Introduction

October 30, 2014, 4:00 pm

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By: Dr.Athiqul H Laskar

India is already been recognised as second fastest economy, after China. India is one of the largest economies in the world, and shall continue its rapid urbanization and economic development over the next several decades. This is a very positive and welcome development. But at the same time Indian rapid development has raised number of the challenges for the country. The challenges are: rising consumption and demand for energy, increasing green house emissions, and constraints on critical natural resources such as land, water and oil. India needs to find solutions and ways to ensure energy and environment sustainability without compromising its economic and social development. In spite of India’s strong policy framework and some successes, environmental degradation has not been arrested on a large scale. By 2030, India is likely to have a G.D.P. of USD 4 trillion and a population of 1.5 billion. This will swell demand for critical resources such as coal and oil with a parallel increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Considering that 80% India of 2030 is yet to be built, the country may have a unique opportunity to pursue development while managing emission growth, enhancing its energy security and creating a few world scale clean-technology industries.
The strategy is closely aligned with the Government of India’s own development priorities expressed in the Eleventh Five Year Plan. It was arrived at after a series of consultations with a broad range of stakeholders including the government and civil society. Under the strategy, the Bank will use lending, dialogue, analytical work, engagement with the private sector, and capacity building to help India achieve its goals.
India has now become a Young Nation: In order to achieve this dream of a ‘Green Prosperous India’, country will have to rely on its most valuable asset, its youth. Global issues need to be brought to the knowledge of an average individual. The best way to walk and begin on this path is informing the youth. Many of the best ideas come from young minds. The Indian youth is, and must be, the builder of a new society and new economic order. At present, 42% of the population of India is composed of people aged between 15-35 years. The figure of youth composition will touch 55% mark in next thirty years. As compared to China, India, a growing democracy with a complex and diverse society The challenge is to ensure that this huge youth population becomes a vibrant, constructive force that can address social issues and create a more equitable and peaceful world. Young people should not merely be looked as passive recipients of services and consumers. But they should be recognised them as change agents who have the energy, passion and creativity to make a significant contribution to society. It is also critical to build the skills of the youth for the future. While every segment of society is responsible for maintaining the environmental integrity of the community, young people must have a special interest in maintaining a healthy environment because they will be the ones to inherit it.
Youth as change Agent: Youth are at the forefront of global, social, economic and political developments. In addition to their intellectual contribution and their ability to mobilize support, young people bring unique perspectives that need to be taken into account. The progress of our societies is based, among other elements, on each society’s capacity to involve young women and men in building and designing the future.
Youth Policy Formulation shall be important vehicle and guiding instrument for the youth participation. The policy frame work provides guidelines to those involved in formulating and executing youth-related policy and programmes at all levels. The youth policy framework shall propose a set of youth participation indicators and shall attempt to both ensure youth participation and measure its effectiveness. The policy frame work should also aims to encourage, at the local, national and regional levels, the inclusion of young people in ongoing decision-making processes. This shall ensure a genuine partnership between young people and adults. It is expected that it will inspire means of improving access and benefit, ability to influence and equity of young people. Youth participation is about developing partnerships between young people and adults in all areas of life so that young people can take a valued position in our society and the community as a whole can benefit from their contribution, ideas and energies.
Major youth Problems and areas of concern of India: India is one large country politically. But there are many India so far as Indian youth and their problems are concerned. The problem of rural youth is different, especially right education, employability, education and soft skills Training facility and vocational training. Youth of urban India and India of cities has different problems.
Upper layer of youth of the cities have problem of drug abuse, alcoholism and college ragging. There are very good education opportunities but problem of employability is relevant.
Indian Youth and Sustainable Development: It is critical to recognize them as change agents who have the energy, passion and creativity to make a significant contribution to society while also building their skills for the future. While every segment of society is responsible for maintaining the environmental integrity of the community, young people must have a special interest in maintaining a healthy environment because they will be the ones to inherit it.
Environmental issues present some of the most profound and complex challenges requiring attention today and in the coming decades.
One foundation-building step in enhancing local, regional, national and global capacities to respond to those challenges is increasing environmental awareness. Here the role of youth is central, for it is in the rising generations that heightened awareness can most easily be achieved. Awareness is not about telling people what will happen. Rather it is about personalizing it and telling them how it could impact their lives. Young educated people are especially well-placed to promote environmental awareness simply because they often have better access to information about the environment than do their elders. In part this is a matter of having being exposed to more environmental education in schools and living all their lives in an era in which environmental issues have loomed large. Established anti-ecological ways of thinking and behaving are not ingrained in young people, and they can introduce fresh ideas and outlooks to issues. Youth can undertake public awareness programs in their schools, nearby communities and rural neighbourhoods to spread awareness.
The participation of youth in environmental protection can be sought at levels and locations ranging from grass-roots activism and participation in conservation projects to policy-making bodies and NGOs. The role of youth can be institutionalized in policy-making through advisory bodies such as youth councils. Many national Governments have ministries or departments with “youth affairs” as part of their portfolio, though such offices tend to view youth as a population to be addressed by public policy (often “youth affairs” is part of the education ministry), rather than a resource to be tapped for participation in policy-making in a variety of areas, including the environment. The role of NGOs has become increasingly institutionalized, so the youth can join various NGOs. There are possibilities for youth participation in practical environmental projects. Even one’s everyday life- and particularly the consumption decisions made in it- can become an “environmental project”.
The Government also has some duties which it is should undertake in order to strengthen participation of youth in the protection, preservation and improvement of the environment. Integration of environmental education and training into education and training programs is one of them. Emphasis should be given to environmental education in school curricula. The participation of youth groups in gathering environmental data and in understanding ecological systems and actual environmental action should be encouraged as a means of improving both their knowledge of the environment and their personal engagement in caring for the environment. It should also focus on enhancing the role of the media as a tool for widespread dissemination of environmental issues to youth. Governments should establish procedures allowing for consultation and possible participation of youth of both genders in decision-making processes with regard to the environment, at the local, national and regional levels.
In addition to these some more initiatives need to be taken at schools in order to develop an interest of the children towards the environment. Through posters, slogan writing, puppet shows, street plays, and similar traditional media we can spread the message of Green Environment – A Sustainable Environment. Eco Clubs can run campus-wide campaigns to promote water and energy conservation, organize national intercollegiate recycling competitions, energy conservation contests and annual celebratory events like Earth Day and Environment Day. We can also have an Each One Teach One program where each student imparts life skills to at least one individual from the under privileged section of the society. Through this personalized interaction, messages on eco friendly strategies are imparted which are localized to the community. These campaigns can give heartening results. A campaign by the school students for the students – Say No to Crackers was launched in Delhi some years back. It has made a significant decrease in the pollution levels of the city, as the youth and children have voluntarily decided to boycott the use of crackers and celebrate a smoke free and noise free Diwali. Anticipating the possibility of load shedding in the summer of 2007, young green entrepreneurs in Mumbai embarked on a Save Power Campaign called ―I Will and Mumbai Will. These activities were initiated to educate and motivate the consumers to switch over to CFL lamps which, in partnership with Phillips India, were made available to consumers at discounted rates. Consumers were appealed, through advertisements in Leading Newspapers, to operate their washing machines and other electric gadgets at non-peak hours and set their air-conditioners to 240 C and thus join the Conservation Campaign. This was backed up with Awareness Programs on Energy Conservation and Electrical Safety held in schools and colleges. Visits of children from schools to thermal power station at Trombay were organized. The contents of all the awareness programs focused on the need for energy conservation, easy to follow tips on conserving energy and precautions to be taken while using electric gadgets to avoid accidents. Such initiatives were replicated in various states of India and have led to green entrepreneurship.

Youth not Educated for Employment
Youth from several Indian states are “not educated enough for employment” as per the market demand as per recent study released.
The findings also indicated that “most youth were neither adequately educated nor equipped with vocational skills”.
“Just two in every five young men (40 percent) and one in every three young women (33 percent) had completed secondary education…(and) one in every 12 young men and one in four young women had never been to school at all in the country,” said the study conducted under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

The study titled ‘Youth in India: Situation and Needs’ assessed the situation of youth in six states – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Tamilnadu – between 2006 and 2008, involving over 58,000 youths in the age group of 15-29 years. Around 44-52 percent of men and 36-48 percent of women in Maharashtra and the southern states of Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu had completed 10 or more years of education, compared to 30-38 percent of men and 13-18 percent of women from the other states. “Basic education can be very important in helping people to get jobs and gainful employment. This connection, while always present, is particularly critical in a rapidly globalising world in which quality control and production according to strict specification can be crucial,” Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said at the release of the study. Around 56 percent of men and 68 percent of women surveyed were interested in acquiring vocational skills to help employability. The study was carried out by the Population Council, Delhi, and International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai.

India is shining. India is progressing with an amazing growth rate. Growth rate of India is the second highest in the world after that of China The youth force of India are contributing lot to the same. It is believed that principal reason behind Indian progress is its youth force, highest in number in the world. However, there is a problem. Huge number of Indian youth is not only unemployed but unemployable.
There are two new world leaders China, in manufacturing sector and India, in service sector. Large numbers of white collar jobs are waiting for suitable candidates. Indian youth force, behind the progress of India, is mainly engaged in IT. India is a leader in software. Software industries in India are continually offering white collar jobs besides some blue collars.
India is also world leader in BPO (Business process out sourcing) and KPO (Knowledge process out sourcing). Large numbers of call centres are contributing to the industries and trades of America the US, UK, and Australia, Japan, European Union, Canada Japan and many other developed countries. BPO sector needs large number of blue collars. KPO industries require and offer white collar jobs.
An IT industry has seen a tremendous boom in India. This industry has employed large number of educated youth with handsome salary. Normally, IT is the highest paid sector. Management, banking, finance, retail, telecommunication, entertainment etc. are some other new sectors that helped India in her tremendous growth.
Shortage of Skill Power: These sectors have started facing a typical problem. Despite a large number of educated youth, there is a shortage of skilled manpower. This is the dilemma. There are unemployed youths and the companies are facing shortage of manpower.
A recent survey throws light on the problem, problems with the educated youth. They are mainly lacking three types of skills.
1. Communication skill
2. Analytical skill and problem solving
3. Respective Domain knowledge and skill.
While in interview approximately sixty percent candidates are screened due to lack of communication skills. Rest twenty five percent are screened for analytical skills and five percent for their lack of knowledge in their respective domain. Hence ninety percent of educated youth force are lacking in one of these three main skills required for job and employment. Only ten percent of educated force of India is employable. Employers are struggling hard to attract them with huge pay-packages that are increasing their production cost significantly. The employers are loosing their competitive edge in global markets. Global slow down only adds to the crisis. Corporations are now facing dual problem.
The problem lies in the education system. The Indian education system has a mismatch with the requirements of the industries. Institutes teach whatever they want. Institutes do not teach what industries require. Industries do not require what institutes teach. The syllabus committees have not been interfacing with the industries. Many big industries have set-up their own in house training program to fight with the problem.
Most of the newly employed youths are compulsorily undergone employers own training program. This enhances cost of employers enormously. It also wastes time.
The problem and solution have two aspects: Individual and collective: As an individual you have to choose your courses carefully. You have to interact with the industries to know their requirements. You must choose an institute very carefully. Ensure that they are covering above mentioned three aspects in their syllabus. It is in your best interest to ensure that your institute is interfacing with the requirements of industries before you admit into it.
What should be done as a general measure to solve the problem? The one point solution of the problem is a change in education system, a radical change. There must be an interface among Government bodies looking after education, Universities, all India committee of technical education and the representatives of the industries. The institutes must educate as per industries’ needs. Have these done, India will not face problem of employability and the youth force of India will not be remain unemployed.
Maintaining rapid and inclusive growth: Infrastructure
Infrastructure of Skills: China vs India: The shortage of skills is preventing large segments of the population from being part of India’s growth story. Nearly 44% of India’s labour force is illiterate, only 17% of it has secondary schooling, and enrolment in higher education is just 11%. This compares unfavourably with, for example, China, where access to secondary education is almost universal and enrolment in higher education exceeds 20%. Moreover, the quality of most Indian graduates is poor and employers offer very little skills upgrading (16% of Indian manufacturers’ offer in-service training to their employees, compared to over 90% of Chinese firms). The informal sector employs over 90% of the workforce. There is very little investment or opportunity for formal skilling for informal workers and enterprises.

Agricultural Growth and Productivity: Low agricultural productivity is keeping some 60 percent of India’s population behind. Shortages of basic rural infrastructure – from roads to electrification – are hindering the growth of off-farm activities. No doubt, agricultural growth has been faster over the past five years (4.7% per year)- facilitated by very good monsoons, greater production of high-value fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, an increase in the minimum support price for grains, and the sudden increase in global prices for agricultural products. But, sustaining this level of performance over the longer term will be difficult without addressing several policy and structural constraints, including a myriad of restrictions, subsidies, support prices, sector governance issues, as well as the tiny size of landholdings and years of underinvestment. The Indian Government has asked the World Bank to place special emphasis on agricultural development in its new strategy.
Challenges of development sustainable: most environmental indicators suggest that growth is extracting an increasing toll on the country’s natural resources – water, land, forests, soils and biodiversity – and leaving a larger pollution footprint. India is highly vulnerable to climate change; cyclones, floods and droughts are happening with increasing frequency, and the Himalayan glaciers that feed India’s largest rivers show clear signs of retreat. Indeed, climate change will impact India first and foremost through its water resources. Rising temperatures will also affect agricultural yields, forests, and marine and coastal biodiversity. India will need to better manage these resources (particularly water) and reduce the burden that environmental degradation is imposing on the population, particularly on the most vulnerable groups.
Increasing the effectiveness of service delivery: while much progress has been made on primary school enrolment, improvements have been elusive in other sectors, particularly health. Although deaths from TB have fallen and polio cases have reduced dramatically in 2008, child malnutrition levels are worse than in Sub-Saharan Africa, despite large expenditures. No Indian city provides water 24/7, only half the population has access to safe drinking water, and less than a third has access to sanitation. Public services fall short largely because they have little or no accountability to the ultimate client, and outdated management systems are unable to provide the information needed for decision-making. These issues are particularly acute in centrally sponsored schemes which are designed and funded by the central government but implemented by the states and lower echelons of government. Given the importance of these schemes, systemic improvements in design and governance are crucial to get results from public spending. The Government of India has requested the World Bank to place special emphasis in its new strategy on centrally sponsored schemes that aim to achieve the MDGs. The Bank will focus on increasing accountability to citizens, decentralizing responsibilities, and enhancing private sector participation in the delivery of these services.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA): The World Bank will continue to assist the central government by providing comprehensive analytical work to underpin policy and institutional reform and to improve the implementation of central government projects on the ground. Under the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) for example, while schools are now more accessible and gender parity has been reached, the focus will now be on improving the quality of education provided. In the power sector, the Bank will continue to support Power grid, India’s national electricity transmission agency, which it has helped to grow into a world-class institution.
Youth and Sustainable Livelihood: Livelihood is a broader category than employment and more in line with the actual manner in which many young people organize themselves and their activities in order to survive. An adaptability and dynamic livelihood capability is the key to generating sustainable livelihoods. Dynamic livelihood capabilities can be thought of as enterprising behaviour in a developing context. The institutional challenge is to improve the effectiveness of the non-formal training system in order to mediate the latent potential of young people into productive social and economic activity, while understanding their current livelihood conditions and capabilities. Governments need to address key global policies that affect youth employment and livelihood. They need to take strategies that promote self-employment and entrepreneurship, school to work programmes and work-based training. A partnership with the private sector needs to be strengthened and the use of new information and communication technologies to support youth employment and training must be encouraged. The youth themselves must be empowered to generate the solutions to youth employment and their best practices and success stories must be acknowledged at all levels to support further replication of such initiatives from the grassroots to the global level.
A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. It is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and still maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base.
The creation of sustainable livelihoods has become an important factor in sustainable development, particularly in developing countries and among disadvantaged populations. More support should be given to the promotion and development of economical and environmental sustainable youth livelihoods. Sustainable development requires an explicit consideration of future generations. Youth will inherit many of the environmental, economic and social problems created over the past decades and incorporating their opinions and concerns into policies at all levels is critical to sustainable development. The capacity of young people to address sustainability issues and become leaders in the 21st century is also critical.
Concerns of Young People is Critical: Addressing the concerns of young people is critical to the success of sustainable development programmes because they are the current and future leaders of our communities. Encouraging civic involvement and investing in youth’s key concerns must be an urgent priority of Governments and Civil Society. Recent major international conferences have addressed issues surrounding youth livelihoods development. However the resolutions that emerged from these conferences have, in some areas, failed to be sufficiently acted upon. Therefore it is up to us the youth, to take actions consistent with the commitment made by Governments in these world conference.
The capacity of each society to progress is based, among other elements, on its capacity to incorporate the contribution and responsibility of youth in the building and designing of its future. In addition to their intellectual contribution and ability to mobilize support, young people bring unique perspectives that need to be taken into account. Youth organizations can be important forums for helping young people to develop the skills necessary for effective youth participation in society.
India and Human Development: Human Development is considered to be a very important aspect of a country’s progress. A nation’s efforts towards enhancing women and children’s health, nutrition and education and also its commitment to resolve social issues like child labour, illiteracy and poverty is relevant in measuring its development. India’s concern for children is evident in the constitutional provisions, policies, programmes and legislation. But, for a nation with 160 million children of less than 6 years of age, the task of reaching out to them is indeed mammoth. The New Economic Policy (NEP) under the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) has created further hurdles by way of scaling down of child development projects, changing patterns of financial resources and changing composition of child development programmes ( Saleth 1992). Further, the NEP has also brought about changes in the labour market in terms of increase of contract labour and feminisation of labour. With nearly a 100 million women in labour force, spread across various sectors of occupations and in diverse regions, it calls for innovation, flexibility and variations in the programmes for women and children. Thus child care programmes have to serve the intersecting needs of women and children. For the child it supplements the care provided by family through its health nutrition, stimulation and pre-school activities. Very significantly it would play a role in releasing young girls from child care tasks.
External Professionals in Public Policy-Making
Growing Complexity of Public Affairs: An important impetus for integration of non-governmental professionals in public policy-making process has been the increasing complexity and sophistication of public affairs. The affairs of the twenty-first century government is both continuously expanding and growing more complex. Compared to a few decades earlier, there are many variables and stakeholders in most public issues. Issues like trade negotiations, climate change, human rights, etc. have only made governmental decision-making more complex. Furthermore, in a fast globalizing India with an increasing international role, government’s policies are scrutinized not only by domestic stakeholders but also by the international community. Policy formulation in this environment can no more be done by generalist civil servants but requires experts. The government is responding to the same, although in an ad hoc manner, through lateral hiring.
This phenomenon is discernable not only in the many lateral appointments enumerated in the previous post, but also borne out in many governmental studies and statements. Elaborating on the changing nature of public administration, the Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) said that there is a need to recognize the complex challenges of modern administration in many sectors like policing, justice delivery, education, healthcare, transportation, land management among others. In the questionnaires distributed by the ARC and the Sixth Central Pay Commission to elicit public opinion, both the Commissions had posed pointed questions regarding the relevance and importance of allowing lateral entry into the government. The ARC concluded that there is almost a universal acknowledgment of the need to induct outstanding skills and talent from outside the government to staff some positions in government departments. Even the Pay Commission recommended a shift from career-based to post-based selection in the higher echelons of Government in order to get the best domain based expertise.
Earlier, even the Committee on Civil Service Reforms, 2004, had emphasized the importance of government officials gaining NGO and private sector experience. It had recommended that after a period of ten years in service civil servants should be encouraged to go on a sabbatical to acquire additional knowledge and update their skills including a lateral move to NGOs or the private sector and return to government without losing their seniority.
Young Population Demanding Greater Political Accountability and Participation: Increasing use of non-governmental professionals is also influenced by demand for greater political accountability and participation driven by a younger population. The demographic profile of the country is seeing a huge change with the “youth bulge” – the working population is more than the dependent population with a greater number of younger people. This younger population, the primary stakeholder in India’s future, is demanding greater transparency in the government and more participative governance. The spread of internet, telecommunication and media is also acting as catalyst of political awareness and accountability. This demand for greater accountability implies higher scrutiny of governmental programmes and acts as an impetus for smart and sensible policies that are effective in dealing with complex public problems. As already noted the government is aware of the paucity of specialist policy-makers and is increasingly looking for external support.
Not only is young India demanding better policies, it is also keen on being part of the policy-making process. The present Indian growth story is riding on the strength on this large young population’s rising expectations which has influenced the demand for more say in governmental affairs. Being part of this segment, I personally believe that young Indians are no more satisfied with mere periodic exercise of franchise but also want to engage with and in the government. Talking about his motivation to work with the government, a 25-year-old investment banker (who quit his job to work with UIDAI) said, “Young people, educated, highly mobile and intelligent, want to do things that will impact the country while they are still in the prime of their lives…A similar sentiment was echoed by our very own Arghva Sengupta (who assisted the Indian Parliament with inputs on Nuclear Civil Liability Bill) when he said that his interest arose from a desire to be engaged with India and its policies.
Clearly, there is a strong urge to be part of government’s development programmes but not necessarily the bureaucracy. The tremendous growth of the economy means that the governmental affairs and regulation are expanding which offers great scope for creative problem-solving. The nature of the task is in itself very appealing which is drawing youngsters towards governmental work, but they do not necessarily want to be part of the government. The attractiveness of governmental work is borne out by the fact that youngsters want to work on governmental problem for strategic reasons. Many look at government work as a great learning experience which will enhance their prospects in the private sector. Despite the allure of such work, there is an unwillingness to spend many years in the junior rungs of the government subjugating oneself to the whims and fancies of the seniors in civil service, especially when many lucrative career options have opened up for these youngsters in the private sector. However, there are a number of youngsters who have given up plum jobs in the private sector and international organizations to work on governmental policy-making in various capacities for a variety of reasons. The underlying point is that young Indians today are keen about the governmental sector and are forcing themselves through lateral entry into the Parliament, government departments, planning bodies, regulatory authorities, etc.
1. Responses sent to the Sixth Pay Commission to reflect these aspirations of the general population too. The Commission had asked a specific question – whether there should be lateral movement from government to non-government jobs and vice versa. Over sixty percent of respondents from across the country preferred lateral movement into the government.
The United Nation and Youth Participation: The United Nations has long recognized the important role youth play in the continuing development of the world in which they live. The United Nations drew worldwide attention to the importance of youth in observing the 1985 International Youth Year: Participation, Development and Peace. Acknowledging the need to expand the opportunities for young people to participate fully in their society, the General Assembly adopted in 1995 the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and beyond as a framework for nations to increase their capacities to address youth needs and issues.
Youth in the Asia-Pacific region constitute a significant proportion of the population, highlighting the importance of fully integrating youth into society through youth participation. Youth, according to the United Nations definition, is the age group between 15 and 24 years old, which represents approximately one-fifth of the total population of the UNESCAP region. The underlying premise of youth participation is that in encouraging youth to participate more fully in society, youth are essentially encouraged to be more knowledgeable on their rights and become more responsible citizens. It is envisaged that once young people have the opportunity to realize their potential, be respected by society and fully participate in their community, consistent with their human rights and responsibilities, society at large will benefit. Youth is therefore the key to the future that thus places them at the core of human resources development (HRD).
UNESCAP recognized the importance of youth participation as a priority in adopting resolution 52/4[3] on “Promoting human resources development among youth in Asia and the Pacific” in April 1996. This was in response to the United Nations General Assembly adoption of the World Programme Action for Youth, which highlighted ten priority areas including “the full and effective participation of youth in society and decision-making.”
UNESCAP notes that there are three key issues in providing a voice for youth in society: access and benefit, ability to influence and equity. These three principles are ultimately the pillars of youth participation. These foundations refer to the rights of all youth to have access to opportunities and to play an active role in all spheres of society. This applies to all youth including girls and young women, rural youth, youth with special needs, and other marginalized youth. In many situations, youth tend to be the first group to be denied certain opportunities. An apparent example is in employment where youth are often the first to lose their jobs in any restructuring effort. The recent economic crisis has highlighted that young people have a disproportionately high record of unemployment. In addition, young people often do not have easy access to information. In the Asia-Pacific region, this is especially true for information on sexual and reproductive health as well as access to appropriate services.
UNESCAP is also advocating that there be a genuine shift in thought and that youth is recognized as active participants and agents of change, capable of making decisions, which affect their lives and society as a whole. Indeed, youth are capable of shaping the world today, not just tomorrow.
The problems facing youth challenge today’s societies and future generations as well. They include: limited resources available for funding youth programmes and activities; inequities in social, economic and political conditions; gender discrimination; high levels of youth unemployment; armed conflict and confrontation; continuing deterioration of the global environment; increasing incidence of disease, hunger and malnutrition; changes in the role of the family; and inadequate opportunity for education and training.
It is critical that youth concerns and issues are understood and addressed. The best vehicle to genuinely understand youth is by giving them a voice through facilitation of their active participation, and hence empowerment, in society. UNESCAP’s commitment to fully integrate youth in society is highlighted in its decision to develop youth participation indicators (YPIs), as called for by the Asia-Pacific Meeting on Human Resources Development for Youth and the Pacific in 1996. At that meeting, the governments of the Asia-Pacific region urged UNESCAP “to develop a series of youth participation indicators to facilitate the analysis of, and thereby promote youth participation in the planning, implementation and evaluation of national youth and related policies. These YPIs are intended to address the problems that impede effective programmes and policies that encourage youth participation, namely.
1. Lack of standardized data on youth development and participation to serve as a basis for policy-making and planning; and
2.
2. Inadequate analytical basis for national policy-making and planning for youth.
Bearing in mind the goal to effectively promote youth participation, this Manual contains four chapters and two annexes. Chapter 1 introduces the framework behind the principle of youth participation and the value of youth participation indicators. Chapter 2 provides the foundation and rationale behind the importance of youth participation, which stems from the need to facilitate young persons to fulfil their responsibilities to society and to realize their rights at citizens. In Chapter 3, indicators are introduced to help measure the existence and levels of youth participation. Their value is highlighted through a case study on adolescent reproductive health. Chapter 4 supplies recommendations for policy makers and programmes managers at the local and national level. Next, Annex 1 provides examples of best practices in the Asia-Pacific region in promoting youth participation. Lastly, in Annex 2 references for further study are given, including suggested publications and web sites.
While youth in developing countries (particularly young women) will have improved access to more relevant education and training to develop their improved skill sets and self-motivation required to generate and sustain viable livelihoods, much more needs to be done. With better policy and programming congruence among education, training and credit provision, youth with enhanced skill sets, will be better equipped to access credit, develop and sustain self-employment initiatives. More effective and relevant education and training will result in more productive employment in micro and small businesses, particularly in the informal sector, larger enterprises that seek enterprising self-motivated employees, and government and civil society that seek enterprising employees. The improved skills and self-motivation of the emerging generation will contribute to increased social and economic productivity of communities. Improved skills will also be conducive to fewer social and political problems that are based on youth unemployment and lack of initiative. Overall, improved skills will contribute to enhanced employment opportunities and the practical generation of sustainable livelihoods for young women and men.
Canada and Youth Policy and Programs.
Reflecting on the Process: Successful Approaches to Research and Policy Development: While the main focus was to identify priority issues facing Aboriginal youth, a significant part of the discussion during the half-day event centred on ways to improve research practices and policy development by making them more collaborative and inclusive. Roundtable participants expressed the need for both research and policy making to recognize the value of traditional knowledge and they encouraged a stronger shift away from research on and about Aboriginal people to one done with, by, and for them.
Recommendations for Research
Improving data quality: Effective policy research in the realm of Aboriginal issues continues to be hampered by significant data gaps, particularly in fields such as education and health. In a context where policy makers are increasingly required to demonstrate effectiveness and value for money as a prerequisite to securing investment in new policy initiatives, addressing these gaps through greater investment, collaboration among stakeholders, and enhanced administrative data collection practices is essential.
Using a positive approach: The roundtable participants emphasized the importance of investigating successful practices and doing research that is focused on strengths and success. By objectively evaluating and understanding what is working in communities and why it is working, research will be better positioned to support sound policy making and program implementation.
Develop Aboriginal research capacity: To help young Aboriginal researchers develop and thrive, one avenue suggested by Dr. Pauline Tremblay is to network with First Nations’ universities. Ms. Sheila Regehr also suggested the need to build 14 capacities at the ground level by sharing what works and what doesn’t. Encouraging young Aboriginal scholars is key to building this capacity.
Engaging local knowledge and investing in community capacity were the two strongest recommendations made by roundtable participants. They also emphasized the importance of working holistically and targeting support where it is most needed. For this to happen, coordinating government policies at all levels and tailoring programs to the conditions prevailing in particular communities and places are key.
Investing in Youth
Ensuring that young people are adequately prepared to become active and engaged citizens is a key preoccupation for policy-makers in Canada and around the world. Started in 2007, this project has examined the changing realities, issues and challenges of today’s youth, including new conditions and aspects of vulnerability, as well as their implications for public policy. It has developed a knowledge base and framework, by identifying methodological strategies and examining new international thinking and policy approaches with a view to supporting analysis of, and developing policy responses to, emerging youth-related issues in Canada. The main body of work under the Investing in Youth project is scheduled to be completed in early 2010.
Summary of Canada Problems: Over the course of the half-day roundtable event, participants discussed themes of educational achievement, family and community well-being, and criminal justice, explaining the benefits of policy development for Aboriginal youth in each of these areas. They addressed not only the “what” of the issue, but also “how” to ethically research issues and develop sound policies that can be implemented through relevant programs.
In addition to the emerging issues, a number of key messages surfaced repeatedly throughout the dialogue:
1. Consider the rich diversity of Canada’s Aboriginal populations in research, policy, and service delivery.
2. Take a strengths-based approach. Track successes and celebrate what is working. There is much to be learned from positive examples. Identify what works at the individual and the community level and disseminate ideas for promising practices.
3. Recognize the value of Indigenous knowledge. Openness to other forms of knowledge, cultural competence, and understanding the importance of social factors are crucial for research to be policy-relevant and for policies to be effective.
4. Engage First Nations, Inuit, and Métis youth in finding the answers. Ensure that these youth have a voice in developing meaningful solutions.
In order to begin to make a difference, policies need to be community- and place based and developed in relation with the communities that are affected, in a process that allows policy makers to tap into local capacity and local knowledge. The developed policies and programs need to be holistic and targeted to where they are most needed.
The United Nations Programme on Youth: While the United Nations Programme on Youth of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs is the only part of the United Nations Secretariat with the explicit mandate to address youth issues, the United Nations system, as a whole, supports youth development with a diverse range of programmes and activities. The United Nations youth agenda is guided by the World Program for Action for Youth (WPAY). Adopted by the General Assembly, the WPAY provides a policy framework and practical guidelines for national action and international support to improve the situation of young people around the world. The WPAY covers fifteen youth priority areas and contains proposals for action for each of these areas.
With activities ranging from data collection and analysis to direct country support to Governments, civil society and other stakeholders, the United Nations system is well-positioned to provide comprehensive, specialized assistance in support of global youth development. Particular attention is being given by many UN system offices to areas such as health, education and employment, and the special circumstances of girls and young women—areas which present persistent challenges to youth development in many parts of the world.

United Nations Programme on Youth (UNPY): The United Nations Programme on Youth is the focal point within the United Nations Secretariat on issues related to youth. It is the only part of the Secretariat that is mandated exclusively to deal with youth issues. The Programme is part of the Division for Social Policy and Development (DSPD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). The Programme on Youth is, in particular, responsible for monitoring progress and constraints in addressing the objectives of the World Programme of Action for Youth. The Programme is also charged with playing a lead role in inter-agency consultations on youth development.
REPORTING ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT: The Programme on Youth conducts research and analysis on youth and provides information to Governments, youth, civil society and other parts of the United Nations system on issues and activities relating to youth development. It publishes the biannual World Youth Report, which presents analytical discussions on selected topics related to youth development. Taking a regional approach, the 2007 Report, for example, examined the opportunities and challenges that youth face during their transition to adulthood. Through Reports of the Secretary-General and other documentation for the General Assembly and the Commission on Social Development, the Youth Programme also contributes to informing Governments and the international community
about key developments in the area of youth and, especially, on progress made in the 15 priority areas of the WPAY. The Programme services the Commission on Social Development and the Third Committee of the General Assembly, providing draft texts for consideration of these bodies and assisting with negotiations of resolutions on youth.
To promote information sharing on activities within and outside the UN system on youth issues, the Programme on Youth also produces Youth Flash, an electronic newsletter. Youth Flash includes an in-depth feature on a topical youth issue and provides an overview of youth-related activities organized by the entire UN system.
INTERNATIONAL YOUTH DAY: International Youth Day is commemorated every year on 12 August. The Programme on Youth selects a theme for the day in consultation with youth organizations, the Department of Public Information and other UN system offices and agencies. It also organizes a commemoration of the Day at United Nations Headquarters in New York. The Programme encourages youth around the world to organize activities to raise awareness about the situation of youth in their country. Youth are encouraged to send in a description of their planned activities to youth@un.org. The most creative activities are featured on the Programme’s website to provide a sense of how International Youth Day is being commemorated around the world and to encourage other youth to take action.
PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATION WITH CIVIL SOCIETY AND YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS: A major part of the work of the UN Programme on Youth involves working with civil society, especially youth-led organizations that are working with young people, particularly at the grassroots level, to address various areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth. The Programme on Youth cooperates with and assists these youth-led organizations. It arranges consultative meetings, briefings and other discussions with them to guide their work, and it also gathers their inputs and feeds them into intergovernmental discussions. Young people, both as individual experts and as representatives of organizations, are also involved in Expert Group Meetings and other substantive discussions organized by the Programme on Youth.
TECHNICAL COOPERATION: The Programme collaborates closely with the Technical Cooperation Unit of the Division for Social Policy and Development. The Unit works directly with Governments and other stakeholders to translate international agreements—such as the World Programme of Action for Youth—into practical strategies and projects at the regional and national levels. The Technical Cooperation Unit draws on the expertise of the Programme on Youth and, in turn, feeds experiences gained from the field into the Programme’s work in support of the intergovernmental policy development process. Cooperation is often initiated at the request of a Government or UN counterpart, and technical cooperation advisers work closely with other parts of the UN system. In 2007/2008, activities of the technical cooperation unit that relate to youth included providing support for the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Young People in Iberoamerica; working to integrate youth concerns into poverty reduction strategies in Africa; and enhancing capacity to deal effectively with issues related to illicit small arms and violence.
ENSURING YOUTH PARTICIPATION: An important dimension of the Programme on Youth’s work relates to strengthening the participation of youth in decision-making processes at all levels in order to increase their contribution to national and international development. The Programme provides advisory services to other United Nations system offices and other stakeholders on how to ensure active youth engagement in their initiatives.
Through publications, advocacy and the provision of advisory services, the Programme on Youth facilitates the inclusion of youth representatives in Member States’ official delegations to the General Assembly and other intergovernmental bodies. Youth delegates frequently deliver official statements on behalf of the youth in their countries, and some negotiate actively on the text of resolutions. The Programme provides information, advisory and orientation services to youth delegates before and during their stay in New York to facilitate their effective participation at UN meetings.
Various activities of the Programme aim to support and encourage youth initiatives and their meaningful engagement in the development dialogue. The Programme supports and encourages youth to plan and carry out projects in support of youth development. A toolkit, Making commitments matter, for example, guides youth organizations on how to evaluate their Governments’ efforts to implement the WPAY. The website of the Programme on Youth provides a wealth of information to support youth participation and it also provides an opportunity for youth to provide feedback to
the Programme.
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Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA): Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW). The Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs focuses on promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls of all ages. The Division supports the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, which seeks to promote and protect the full enjoyment of all human rights and the fundamental freedoms of all women throughout their life cycle. DAW also supports the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and its Optional Protocol. The Division strives to promote the mainstreaming of a gender perspective both within and outside the United Nations system.
RATIONALE FOR YOUTH-RELATED WORK: DAW examines issues that affect young women and girls in the context of the 12 critical areas of concern of the Beijing Platform for Action as well as emerging issues, many of which coincide with the priority areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth. Among the areas addressed are education, employment, poverty and hunger, health, care-giving, environment, sport, participation in decision-making, information and communication technology, HIV/AIDS, and armed conflict.
RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS: DAW conducts research and develops policy options to promote gender equality and women’s empowerment. The Division has a publications programme, which includes resources for Governments, civil society and other stakeholders to enhance work on gender equality, women’s human rights and the empowerment of women.
YOUTH AND THE COMMISSION ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN: A major area of DAW’s work is to provide substantive support to the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) and other intergovernmental bodies working to advance the global policy agenda on gender equality. In this context, DAW covers issues related to the improvement of the situation of young women and girls. The annual sessions of the Commission on the Status of Women provide space for young women and girls to participate actively in informing global policymaking on gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls. At its fifty-first session in 2007, the Commission on the Status of Women addressed “The elimination of all forms of discrimination and violence against the girl child” as its priority theme. Over 200 girls participated in the session and were involved in official interactive meetings of the Commission, such as the High-level Roundtable on the priority theme, and other CSW-related events and activities. The 2007 Commission’s agreed conclusions on the priority theme include recommendations for the development of programmes and projects aimed at young women and girls affected by poverty, armed conflict, HIV/AIDS, violence and discrimination.
In preparation for the annual sessions of the Commission on the Status of Women, the Division for the Advancement of Women holds an online discussion of the priority theme to be considered by the Commission. The discussions are open to all and give girls and young women a platform from which to share their views on issues affecting them.
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE): The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) strives to foster sustainable economic growth among its 56 Member States located in the European Union (EU), non-EU Western and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, Central Asia and North America. All these countries dialogue and cooperate under the aegis of ECE on economic and sect oral issues. To this end, ECE provides a forum for analysis, policy advice and assistance to Governments. Through the development of conventions, norms and standards, ECE aims to harmonize action and facilitate exchanges between Member States. This process results in consumer guarantees of safety and quality, helps protect the environment, and facilitates trade and the greater integration of member countries at the regional level and also with the global economy. The key areas of expertise of the ECE are economic cooperation and integration, energy, environment, housing and land management, population, statistics, timber and forests, trade and transport.
RATIONALE FOR YOUTH-RELATED WORK: ECE recognizes that young people represent an asset upon which the future of any society depends. The ECE region is home to about 179 million youth, representing approximately 15 per cent of the total population. In many countries of the ECE region, young people are facing an erosion of their opportunities to gain education, employable skills, and a decent job and income. It is estimated that 18 million young people in the countries in transition and emerging market economies are neither at school nor in employment. Concerned with this situation, ECE launched a youth entrepreneurship programme in the early 2000s which led to two Regional Youth Forums in 2002 and 2003. Currently, ECE’s key engagement on youth is in the area of road safety initiatives, in recognition of the fact that road accidents are the leading cause of death for youth. In addition, ECE focuses on improving knowledge for policymaking on issues that directly affect youth.
GENERATIONS AND GENDER PROGRAMME: ECE is coordinating the Generations and Gender Programme (GGP) of data collection and research. GGP is a system of national Generations and Gender Surveys (GGS) and contextual databases, which aims at improving the knowledge base for policymaking in UNECE countries. The surveys conducted in this programme cover the age range from 18 to 79 years. Many of the issues studied, however, are specifically relevant for young people, such as the processes of family formation and home-leaving and a broad range of their determinants, including education, the labour market, housing, intergenerational relationships and contraception. The GGP contextual database, which includes age-specific data on population processes and employment, is a comparative collection of around 200 variables on the national and regional level for each participating country. These data serve to complement the micro-level data collected in the GGS.
Ten Steps to National Youth Policy Formulation: Many countries have established youth policies, using the World Programmes of Action for youth to the year 2000 and Beyond as a guide. In this process, it is imperative to note that the WPAY mentions that governments and youth organizations should promote an “active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programmes”. In the process of formulating any youth policy, specifically a national plan, governments and other stakeholders may consider the following guidelines:
1. Participation for an inclusive process: involve and empower all stakeholders’ right from the beginning in the design, implementation and evaluation of youth policy. The participation of youth, NGOs, all related government departments and levels, as well as United Nations agencies can contribute to the success of the policy. The participation of these actors facilitates the creation of a policy that best fits the needs and capacities of youth as a distinct population group, and helps to foster support and understanding of the policy objectives, which are necessary for the implementation.
2. Know the situation and conduct a needs analysis: make profiles of the development situation of young people in your country. The priority areas for youth development contained in the WPAY could serve as a means for organizing this analysis. As the design of youth policy should aim at ensuring the full enjoyment by young people of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, these principles should also inform the analysis of the situation of youth. To sketch an accurate picture of the situation to influence youth policy, it is vital to open a meaningful dialogue with youth on the questions that affect their lives, from the initial planning stages of policy through monitoring and evaluation. In conducting a needs analysis, it is important to make distinctions according to age, sex, rural/urban, education level and family income to identify the most vulnerable groups and to set priorities accordingly. Frequently, data on funding and spending is divided into the two categories of children and adults; tracking the financial resources devoted specifically to youth can improve the impact of the investment.
3. Define vulnerable groups: as part of the needs assessment and situation analysis, determine what groups of youth live in vulnerable situations created by either current circumstances, political conditions or long histories of social exclusion and discrimination. The WPAY and international standards of human rights apply to all people equally, but to meaningfully commit to this principle, policy makers should determine if there are youth who are invisible to existing services or whose needs are not reflected in the national youth policy itself. In some cases, ignoring these groups can impede national economic growth in the long run. Capturing the situation of vulnerable youth can sometimes require expanded data collection.
4. Understand your resources: know what you have and what you need to invest in youth by making a profile of the available and the needed resources in the country that are specific to youth. Resources may include policies, programmes and financial means of the government, NGOs, youth organizations and private initiatives, as well as existing networks, expertise and legal frameworks. Resources also describe the time and energy of different institutions and branches of government devoted to youth. Defining resources also involves examining less tangible elements such as factors which hinder access to services such as poor information, unaffordability, and the trust between youth and service providers. Above all, resources are determined by budgetary allocation. It is necessary to compare the actual needs of young people to the stock of available resources and to make sure costs of policy are taken into account in local and national budgets.
5. Establish a budget allocated for implementation of youth policy: even though youth policy is a cross-sect oral development field that requires action within several departments, ministries and agencies, it is central that the established lead agency have a specific budget for youth policy implementation that can distributed by responsible actors. Failing in this role may lead to a loss of motivation from all the actors, including youth groups, involved in designing and drafting the vision of the youth policy.
6. Learn from past experience: study past successes and failures. Knowledge of what works should be documented and a repository of good practices established; good practices are ways of doing things that have proven effective in one situation and may have applicability in another. Many governments have developed successful policies and run a variety of youth development projects. This research and expertise should be made available to all parts of government. The exchange of experiences can reach beyond the scope of government and may also include civil society and youth organizations.
7. Develop a clear vision to implement youth policy: develop a national action plan based on the needs of youth and the available budget. The national plan or youth policy should be known and understood on the national and local levels to create the necessary political and societal commitment. National policies and programmes may need to be translated to the regional and/or local level, and directed to the specific needs of youth in that area. Establishing and maintaining communication channels improves relationships with beneficiaries and with those who are implementing the policy. These channels can facilitate dissemination of information, but they also exist as a two-way street; experiences from ‘the field’ can enrich a government’s understanding of the situation of youth. Political commitment is also necessary to successfully adopt and enact a national youth policy. Advocacy and outreach are necessary to inform citizens of new programmes and of existing legislation that affect their well-being.
8. Create an institutional structure conducive to implementation of youth policy: establish a lead agency (or focal points in different government ministries) as part of an effective structure to coordinate youth policies. Youth development implies a cross-sect oral approach. A lead agency creates coherence between implemented policies and programmes and ensures coordination between departments and ministries; for example, some programmes may require the collaboration of the ministries of justice, education, and labour. The agency can be a ministry or a department within a ministry with an aim of coordinating the activities on youth matters in order to secure the effective integration of youth policy into national development planning.
9. Engage in partnerships for action: though most youth-oriented policies are led by governments, their design, implementation and evaluation are all dependent on the participation of other stakeholders, chiefly: youth, civil society, the private sector, parents, and sometimes UN agencies and donors, and the international community. Cooperation, institutional support and partnerships contribute to forming more solid investments in youth. Partnerships should be guided by the goal of promoting youth themselves as valuable assets and effective partners. See Part II for more information on partnerships.
10. Increase knowledge and design better programmes through monitoring and evaluation: redefine goals and objectives according to new trends and needs in young people’s lives and according to the achievements and shortcomings of existing programmes. Monitoring may be defined as the routine tracking of priority information about a programme and its intended outcomes, while evaluation is the set of activities designed to determine a programme’s effect or value. Youth can benefit from participating in these exercises. Specific questions related to the needs and aspirations of youth should be included in population censuses or national surveys. In addition, qualitative indicators concerning perceptions, attitudes and aspirations could be developed through special surveys and studies.
USA: Youth Problems, Programs and Policy: Basic premise of American education is: The fundamental task of education is the apprenticeship of liberty, learning to be free. Of course it should not be responsive only to one’s single self and its desires. Participatory freedom rising from the realization that we are parts of a whole, involved in a range of relationships, extending from the family to the local community, to the society at large. Freedom signifies the capacity to choose and the power to act, neither one of which is a natural endowment; they have to be nurtured, they have to be taught. And they require open spaces with vistas on alternative realities, on what might be, on what should be. For John Dewey, “The possibility of freedom is deeply grounded in our very beings. It is one with our individuality, our being uniquely what we are and not imitators or parasites of others. But, like other possibilities, this possibility has to be actualized,” and then, he said, it can be actualized only within and by means of surrounding conditions, by aware engagement with others in the natural and the human world.

Children are now being given iPhones and computers before they can reach the cookie jar. Kids from the age group of 18-30 are going to have it rough, but that is the demographic that can also make some change if we get our crap together before it’s too late. Dramatic change will be the only thing that saves America. Can American youth take the reins of our country in the coming years and make a positive change?
1) The youth of America feels trapped within a world of MTV bull snot, materialistic items, and status among their peers. For these reasons it’s my belief that most will not take any action to bring change. And most also lack the general knowledge to make any constructive, beneficial changes.

2) The youth that are educated enough about the situation and want to make a difference via protest and/or revolution of some kind are scared, as well as leaderless. I can’t help anyone get over fear other than to say there is nothing to fear from government. The government as an entity cannot hurt us if we stand united for a single cause with one voice. If we decided to march on Washington with 1 million people and tell them we’re done with it, they would have to listen. This is where Leadership must come into the equation, and which is where I feel I can be of most help. Along with the protests in Europe there are the cyber attacks taking place in response to the Wikileaks gag order. The efforts of the US Government to silence WL should be a sign that they are scared of us finding out the truth. They should be even more scared of what will happen should 1 million people march up to the Capitol and say enough is enough.

If we used our bodies and our voices, instead of our computers and our keyboards, the message would ring clear throughout the country:
The Importance of Teaching Values: While parents are seen as having the ultimate responsibility for imparting values to their children, schools are seen as having an important supportive role. All segments of the community agree that it is a part of public education to impart the values that the next generation needs.
• Large majorities, over 70%, of parents, teachers and economic leaders agree that values such as responsibility, honesty, tolerance of others and good work habits are “absolutely essential” for schools to teach. (Public Agenda Report “Assignment Incomplete: The Unfinished Business of Education Reform,” 1995)
• Students rate values like hard work, good work habits and honesty and tolerance of others among the most important things for high schools to teach. (Public Agenda Report “Getting By: What American Teenagers Really Think About Their Schools,” 1997)
• Approximately half of America’s teachers say that values are more important to teach than academics, with another 9% finding values equally important. (Public Agenda Report ” Given the Circumstances: Teachers Talk About Public Education Today,” 1996)
Educational Aspirations: The educational aspirations of high school students are high and on the rise. Over the decade from 1982, a college education came to be seen as a necessity.
• In 1992, nearly seven out of ten high school seniors said they hoped to graduate from college, as compared to only 39% in 1982. (Youth Indicators, 1996)
• The desire for post-secondary education cut across gender, ethnic and socioeconomic lines. In every subgroup, the vast majority aspire to more than a high school education. Even among high school seniors in the lowest performance quintile, 87% felt a high school diploma was not enough and wanted to obtain at least some further education. ( Ibid.)
There is a realistic basis for this level of aspiration. The earnings gap between high school graduates and college graduates has increased substantially. In 1980, males with four or more years of college earned 19% more than high school graduates. By 1993, this gap had widened to 57%, and the trend continues to climb. (Youth Indicators, 1996)
Job skills and job training: Americans recognize that a significant problem for American youth is a lack of job training and job skills and see a need to increase services to youth that would better prepare them for employment.
• Two out of three Americans see a lack of job skills as a serious problem for young adults aged 17-21 in their communities (Yankelovich Partners, “Young Adults At Risk Survey,” 1995)
• Fewer than one out of four (23%) consider the quality of education and job training of young people to be excellent or good. (Peter Hart, Council on Competitiveness, 1991)
• Many more see a need for more job training (67%) and job placement (62%) services. (Yankelovich Partners, “Young Adults At Risk Survey,” 1995)
• An analysis of the United States as compared to six other industrial democracies found it at or near the bottom in the effectiveness of its employment services and school-to-work programs (“Why People Don’t Trust Government,” Nye, Zelikow & King, Harvard, 1997 p.72)
• When asked who should take the lead in providing job training for youth, 43% named individuals and businesses, 35% put the emphasis on government programs and funding and 20% volunteered that both should be involved. (CNN, USA Today/ Gallup survey, 1995)
Moral Values: One of the most serious concerns in society today is a decline in moral values. The public see declining values as a key component in major social and political issues. Attitudes toward young people are framed within the perception of a decline in the family’s ability to transmit successfully the values of respect, responsibility and civility to their children.
• When asked the source of the most serious problems in our society, 51% attribute them mainly to a decline in moral values; only 37% said they stem from economic and financial pressures on the family. (NBC News/Wall Street Journal ,1996)
• A 1996 DYG study found that 87% of Americans (up from 76% in 1994) shared the conviction that our nation’s social morality has eroded. This belief is seen across gender, age and race differences.
• The proportion that sees a decline in family values increased from 62% in 1989 to 76% in 1995. (“American Family Values,” Michaels Opinion Research, 1995)
Teenage Pregnancy: When President Clinton identified teen pregnancy as the nation’s most serious social problem in his 1995 State of the Union Address, his words resonated with the public. Teen pregnancy is seen as a symptom of the erosion of family cohesiveness and is closely associated with out-of-wedlock births. One of the strongest arguments of opponents of the welfare system was that it encouraged teenagers to have kids out of wedlock, a belief shared by six out of ten Americans. (Public Agenda, “The Values We Live By: What Americans Want from Welfare Reform,” 1996)
Youth Crime: What adults think about young people is influenced by their concern about crime and their perception that young people have a heavy share in the increase in crime over the past few decades.
• Despite the fact that crime rates have shown a recent decrease, a 1996 survey found that crime still topped the list of important problems facing the country today, more of a concern than jobs and unemployment. (CBS News/ New York Times,1996)
• The public is concerned that youth crime is on the rise. 86% believe that crimes committed by teenagers in this country had increased from last year; only 2% saw a decrease. (Ibid.)
• 81% see teen-age violence as a big problem in most of the country, though not as bad in their own community. (Ibid.)
The “get tough” attitude to crime in general carries over to youth, with widespread support for more stringent policies for juvenile criminals.
• The large majority of Americans (83%) would mete out the same punishment to juveniles convicted of their second or third crimes as to adults with comparable conviction records. (Gallup for CNN/USA Today, 1994)
• In a 1994 Gallup survey, 61% favoured the death penalty for a teenager who is convicted of murder, up from 24% in 1957.
At the same time, the public also supports early intervention programs for high-risk youth and spending federal funds to provide positive social programs for poor youth.
• 65% of respondents to a 1994 Gallup crime survey favoured the use of federal funds for social programs such as midnight basketball and other activities for poor children.
• Given a choice of methods for reducing crime in this country, 64 % favoured putting money and effort into preventive methods such as better education and job training over improving law enforcement (27%). (Wirthlin Group, 1994)
CONCLUSION
In the end, the Indian Youth serves as a beacon of light in ending the environment crisis. They can serve as an effective force in encouraging people to redo their lifestyles and prod stakeholders to make a concrete plan of action. A well-thought framework, strong research armour and a concerted effort among different youth-led initiatives are key steps to strengthen the youth‘s influence in society. Through these, the Indian Youth will be ready to step up to the sustainability challenge.
Considering that today’s youth will be the tomorrow’s green entrepreneurs we need to cultivate moral and ethical values regarding business and the environment. The establishment and design of companies, without taking into account the impact that they will have on the environment, is what the present generation of young green entrepreneurs must avoid. Our companies must, to a large extent, be accountable for the pollution that they generate. We cannot continue to think, as we have done until now, that the responsibility for keeping the environment healthy and free of garbage is the exclusive purview of the State. It is not enough to label our packages with phrases such as let us protect the environment, recyclable container, and environmentally responsible company. We must instead contribute a part of our capital, along with the State, to developing clean technologies.
In addition to the above two reasons, shortcomings of the Indian bureaucracy in the nature corruption and institutional inertia against reform, ensure the continued use of external professionals in public policy-making in India in the days to come. In fact, in this emerging policy environment, questions are being raised over the wisdom of continuing with the virtual monopoly of civil services over all the positions in the government. The demand for change is coming from not only the general public but also within the civil service. In a recent survey of civil servants, fifty three percent of officers agreed with the idea of lateral entry at higher positions, and among those, twenty three percent strongly agreed. In comparison, thirty six percent of officers disagreed with this proposition with a mere thirteen percent strongly disagreeing.
Going a step further, the ARC stated that there is a need to institutionalize the process of induction of outside talent into the government. The various appointments, statements and surveys point that lateral entry of external professionals in public policy-making is here to stay. Institutionalizing the same through a formal process is certainly a good idea. The earlier the government brings in changes to formalize the process and give it an institutional shape, the better it is for the country.
India needs to go a long way to improve education system and content of education that can be applied on job and industry. Content of education should include personality development, communication skill and team work and team spirit. So that educated youth become employable.
Last but not the last problem to be addressed is to reduce drug abuse and alcoholism among youth. Enhancement of youth participation in politics and social services cannot be overemphasized,
References
• Department of Economic and Social Affairs
o United Nations Programme on Youth (UNPY)
o Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW)
o Division for Sustainable Development (DSD)
o Population Division (UNPD)
o Statistics Division (UNSD)
Beavon, Daniel. 2008. “Educational Research – A Portrait or It’s Not the Schools, Stupid”, Work and Learning Network for Research and Policy Symposium, Edmonton, April 23.
Beaujot, Roderick and Don Kerr. 2007. Emerging Youth Transition Patters in Canada: Opportunities and Risk. Ottawa: Policy Research Initiative.
Bradford, Neil. 2002. Why Cities Matter: Policy Research Perspectives for Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.
Brownell, Marni, Noralou Roos, Randy Fransoo et al. 2006. “Is the Class Half Empty? A Population-Based Perspective on Socioeconomic Status and Educational Outcomes.” IRPP Choices. Vol. 12, No. 5.

Canada. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. 1996. Report. 5 vols. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. 2005. Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans.

Chandler, Michael and Christopher E. Lalonde. 2008. “Cultural Continuity as a Protective Factor against Suicide in First Nations Youth”, Horizons. March. Vol. 10, No. 1.
Guimond, Eric. 2008. “When Teenage Girls Have Children: Trends and Consequences”, Horizons. March. Vol. 10, No. 1.
Hay, David. 2005. Housing, Horizontality and Social Policy. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.
Horizons “Hope or Heartbreak: Aboriginal Youth and Canada’s Future”. 2008. March. Vol. 10, No. 1.
Latimer, J., and Foss, L.C. 2004. A One-Day Snapshot of Aboriginal Youth in Custody Across Canada: Phase II. Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada.
Malatest, R.A. 2004. Aboriginal Peoples and Post-Secondary Education: What Educators Have Learned. Montreal: The Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation.
National Council on Welfare. 2007. First Nations, Metis and Inuit Children and Youth: Time to Act. September. Vol. 127.
Ponting, J. Rick, and Cora J. Voyageur. 2005. “Multiple Points of Light: Grounds for Optimism among First Nations in Canada.” In Hidden in Plain Sight: Contributions of Aboriginal Peoples to Canadian Identity and Culture, edited by David R. Newhouse, Cora J. Voyageur, and Dan Beavon, 425-54. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Rittel, Horst, and Melvin Webber; “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning,” Policy Sciences, Vol. 4, pp. 155-169. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1973. [Reprinted in N. Cross (ed.), Developments in Design Methodology, J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1984, pp. 135-144.]

Youth Employability in Current Situation Youth not Educated for Employment General Pan India Situation

October 30, 2014, 3:57 pm

By: Dr.Athiqul H. Laskar
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Youth from several Indian states are “not educated enough for employment” as per the market demand as per recent study released? The findings also indicated that “most youth were neither adequately educated nor equipped with vocational skills”.”Just two in every five young men (40 percent) and one in every three young women (33 percent) had completed secondary education…(and) one in every 12 young men and one in four young women had never been to school at all in the country,” said the study conducted under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

The study titled ‘Youth in India: Situation and Needs’ assessed the situation of youth in six states – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Tamilnadu – between 2006 and 2008, involving over 58,000 youths in the age group of 15-29 years. Around 44-52 percent of men and 36-48 percent of women in Maharashtra and the southern states of Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu had completed 10 or more years of education, compared to 30-38 percent of men and 13-18 percent of women from the other states. “Basic education can be very important in helping people to get jobs and gainful employment. This connection, while always present, is particularly critical in a rapidly globalising world in which quality control and production according to strict specification can be crucial,” Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said at the release of the study. Around 56 percent of men and 68 percent of women surveyed were interested in acquiring vocational skills to help employability. The study was carried out by the Population Council, Delhi, and International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai.

India is shining. India is progressing with an amazing growth rate. Growth rate of India is the second highest in the world after that of China The youth force of India are contributing lot to the same. It is believed that principal reason behind Indian progress is its youth force, highest in number in the world. However, there is a problem. Huge number of Indian youth is not only unemployed but unemployable.

There are two new world leaders China, in manufacturing sector and India, in service sector. Large numbers of white collar jobs are waiting for suitable candidates. Indian youth force, behind the progress of India, is mainly engaged in IT. India is a leader in software. Software industries in India are continually offering white collar jobs besides some blue collars.
India is also world leader in BPO (Business process out sourcing) and KPO (Knowledge process out sourcing). Large numbers of call centres are contributing to the industries and trades of America the US, UK, and Australia, Japan, European Union, Canada Japan and many other developed countries. BPO sector needs large number of blue collars. KPO industries require and offer white collar jobs.
An IT industry has seen a tremendous boom in India. This industry has employed large number of educated youth with handsome salary. Normally, IT is the highest paid sector. Management, banking, finance, retail, telecommunication, entertainment etc. are some other new sectors that helped India in her tremendous growth.
Shortage of Skill Power
These sectors have started facing a typical problem. Despite a large number of educated youth, there is a shortage of skilled manpower. This is the dilemma. There are unemployed youths and the companies are facing shortage of manpower.
A recent survey throws light on the problem, problems with the educated youth. They are mainly lacking three types of skills.
1. Communication skill
2. Analytical skill and problem solving
3. Respective Domain knowledge and skill.
While in interview approximately sixty percent candidates are screened due to lack of communication skills. Rest twenty five percent are screened for analytical skills and five percent for their lack of knowledge in their respective domain. Hence ninety percent of educated youth force are lacking in one of these three main skills required for job and employment. Only ten percent of educated force of India is employable. Employers are struggling hard to attract them with huge pay-packages that are increasing their production cost significantly. The employers are loosing their competitive edge in global markets. Global slow down only adds to the crisis. Corporations are now facing dual problem.
The problem lies in the education system. The Indian education system has a mismatch with the requirements of the industries. Institutes teach what ever they want. Institutes do not teach what industries require. Industries do not require what institutes teach. The syllabus committees have not been interfacing with the industries. Many big industries have set-up their own in house training program to fight with the problem. Most of the newly employed youths are compulsorily undergone employers own training program. This enhances cost of employers enormously. It also wastes time.
The problem and solution have two aspects: Individual and collective.
As an individual you have to choose your courses carefully. You have to interact with the industries to know their requirements. You must choose an institute very carefully. Ensure that they are covering above mentioned three aspects in their syllabus. It is in your best interest to ensure that your institute is interfacing with the requirements of industries before you admit into it.
What should be done as a general measure to solve the problem?
The one point solution of the problem is a change in education system, a radical change. There must be an interface among Government bodies looking after education, Universities, all India committee of technical education and the representatives of the industries. The institutes must educate as per industries’ needs. Have these done, India will not face problem of employability and the youth force of India will not be remain unemployed.
Degrees are not enough in job market.

Enhancing Employee Employability
We are living in the highly connected and cutthroat competitive global world, with changing environment and expectation as well as shifting paradigms. It is an individual’s capability to get an employment, not only because he has a degree and the technical skills but also possesses other soft skills. Once your degree has unlocked the door, you will need the right mix of soft skills, to get employment in competitive market place.
The Corporate houses need employees that can be immediately employed and deployed. Nasscom also confessed recently, that there is huge demand and supply mismatch in the quality work force in terms of the technical skills and skills of communication, articulation and teamwork. India Inc. gears to face its biggest challenge over a talent shortage of 5, 00,000 knowledge workers as per Nasscom McKinsey report. The situation is compounded by the fact that only 25% of the fresh engineers are employable by the multinationals.

Employability is the ability of an individual to be employed. An employability skill is a set of achievements, understandings, personal skills and attitude that make individuals more likely to gain employment and to be effective, competent and successful in their chosen career.

Many large corporate houses and technical firms are investing heavily into the pre-employment training. Organisations that focus strongly on interpersonal skills learning are on average 27 % more productive and enjoy 40 percent higher revenue growth than their competitors, according to a recent study by Accenture. With investment in the pre-employment training, cost of recruitment and training will come down significantly, especially of IT and ITES companies, who need to hire aggressively.

The educational institutes has to innovate themselves and work hard to bridge the gap between industry expectation, requirements and industry education .They need to align the talent and skills development to match corporate expectations and maximise their employability and competitive edge. The importance of enhancement of employee employability cannot be overestimated. It is now time to ensure quality education and focus on honing the employability skills right from the school. It is still remains a question how to bridge the huge gap in the availability of employable skill.
One needs the soft skills like effective communication skills, interpersonal skills, business etiquette and the telephone skills to blend in today’s corporate world. All these skills including leadership skills, motivation skills, teamwork, public speaking, group discussion and even the appropriate dressing are people centric skills. Students are required to imbibe necessary soft skills and competency talents to compete in career market place. These skills also make them fit for employment in industry and corporate world.
People Skills
You cannot succeed just by yourself. You have to be lifted to success by people who are willing to help you. You can become successful only when he learns to deal with the people who make his/her success possible.

Success is built on people. Its people to whom you listen and also listen to you and watch what you do. People are your doorway to success. So pass through those doors diplomatically. People are opportunity. They are new horizons. Then take this understanding and create whole new life for yourself, a more successful life, based upon the ingredient in the formula for success called “Dealing with people.”

It is people who respond to suggestions and whose vanity and pride must be traded upon to achieve your desire. It is people, who must be persuaded, led, directed, cajoled, teased or pleased. It is people who must be “sold” on you, your products, your services, day after day. Therefore to get success, to get what you want out of life, it is vital to know to deal with people and touch the buttons that motivate them Everybody has dreams and wants to fulfill dream in one’s life span. But only few can live their dreams.
A large component of your career success depends on other people. Many professionals and business persons are highly competent and well trained and dedicated in their works. But still fail or failed to advance to their potential because they lack soft skills, skills of dealing with people. We are living in highly connected and cutthroat competitive global world. In addition to required academic, technical education and work experience, one needs soft skills like effective communication skills, interpersonal skills, and business etiquette and telephone skills to blend in today’s corporate world. All these skills including leadership skills, motivation skills, teamwork, public speaking, group discussion and even appropriate dressing are people centric skills. People skills are most important skills of all skills.”

Mr. Emmett C. Murphy author of national bookseller, New York, 1966 of the book “Leadership IQ” writes: “We gained a third important insight when we saw another consistent pattern in the behavior of work leaders: They know how to say the right thing to right people to get the right work done well, on time, and within budget. They reveal themselves by their deeds and thus provide role models for everyone with whom they interact. They have mastered art of conversation.

You must understand the people to succeed in Life.

No success without understanding the People. You must have insight of the people you need to deal. You should talk less and listen more. You must learn to watch and listen to the people. The main technique is to keep your eyes & ears open, mouth closed. You need to have skill and insight for managing, selling and working with people. These skills are essential for getting people to do what you want them to do. You should know and accept the fact that everybody has strength as well as weakness. Everybody has his/her own uniqueness. You must learn to tolerate the other person’s weakness. People need you because of their weakness and not because of their strength. You should not make judgment about others without meeting, knowing and understanding them. Firstly you should observe and listen to them. Always look for personal dynamics beneath the surface.

Insight into the People.

You must have the greatest insight into the field of human motivation most “Satisfied need do not motivate.” It is also essential to know the needs of the people that they value most after physical survival. These needs are: To Be Understood, To Be Affirmed, to be validated, to be appreciated.

It is important to listen with empathy to understand the people. It gives them psychological air Understanding the people impacts communication in every area of life. You should not bounce the words around but should respond to everyone’s uniqueness. It is important to give others full attention by putting their feeling and thoughts ahead of your own. You should grow habit to understand the other people first.

Seek first to understand then to be understood.

We normally seek first to be understood. We need to listen to other person with deep interest so that we really deeply understand the other human being from that person’s own frame of reference. Most of the people do not hear other people to really listen and understand them. It is their habit to listen the people with the intention of replying them back. While hearing other people, they are either speaking or preparing to reply and are filtering everything from their own perceptions or experiences. Most of us are always filled with our own rightness. We always want others to understand us. We never try to understand what is going on inside another human being. It is important to know that you are dealing with the reality inside another person’s head and heart. You must focus on receiving the deep communication of another human soul.

It lies in the ability to get the other person’s point of view and see things from that person’s angle as well as from your own to understand the people. That is so simple, so obvious, that anyone ought to see the truth of it at a glance. Yet 90% of the people on this earth ignore it 90% of the time.

Know to deal with you.

You have to be comfortable with yourself before you can be truly comfortable with others. Therefore success in this area would have to do with being happy with you. You should have full confidence and faith in self. You should take responsibility to deal with you so that you can get along and deal with others effectively. Wherever you are, whatever you do, the ability to handle people is one of the most important skills. Getting along with people is the key to personal development. The easiest way to think of this is as expanding spheres of influence. Each area leads to the next.

The better you are at handling people, dealing with people, and the happier and successful you will be with your life.

Getting people to do that you want them to do.

You should know that there is only one way to get anyone to do anything, yes, only one way, and that is by making the other person want to do it. The only way I can get you to do something is by giving you what you want. “Every act you have ever performed since the day you were born,”Said Andrew Carnegie “was performed because you wanted something.” Here are some of the motives most people will do to achieve.

1) Health and the preservation of life
2) Food
3) Sleep
4) Money and the things money will buy
5) Life in the hereafter
6) Sexual gratification
7) The well-being of our children
8) A feeling of importance

You should know that there is only one way to get anyone to do anything, yes, only one way, and that is by making the other person want to do it. The only way I can get you to do something is by giving you what you want. Why talk about what you want? You are always interested in it. But no one else is. The rest of us are just like you: we are interested in what we want. So the only way on earth to influence other people is to talk about what they want and show them how to get it.

Apart from health, money and what money can buy, you must aim to satisfy important need of any human being to get him to do what you want them to do, is to recognised and feel important.

How to make other People “Important “.

There is one longing, almost as deep, almost as imperious, as the desire for food or sleep, which is seldom gratified. It’s “the desire to be important.” The rare individual who honestly satisfies their heart hunger will hold people in the palm of his hand. Give others your full attention by putting their feeling and their thoughts ahead of your own.

A successful leader is always ready to listen and have willingness to learn from everything and everyone. You must recognise the fact that these people can have the best information and these are the very people that you lead. You need to encourage people to speak their mind even if it is controversial. Allowing people to speak their mind doesn’t mean that they will lose respect for your authority as a leader. Actually, quite the opposite will occur. People will begin to feel like they are a contributing factor and important person.

Appreciation:

One of the most neglected virtues of our daily existence is appreciation. In our interpersonal relationship, we should never forget that all our associates are human beings and hunger for appreciation. Let’s cease thinking of our accomplishments, our wants. Let’s try to figure out the other person’s good points. Then forget flattery. Give honest, sincere appreciation.

Communication Skills

The Communication skills can be further divided into the verbal communication, written communication and the telephonic conversation. The Communication skills also include assertive skill and listening skill. In survey after survey, the interpersonal communication skills are consistently ranked at or near the top of a list of all the skills necessary for career success. People who possess these skills enjoy a better relationship at work and more productive interactions with those around them. Teams with members who excel at these skills are more productive and more cohesive. No one is born with these “people skills.” They are the result of attention and practice.

Realize that the communication is more than just the words we use. There are three aspects involved: 1) What you mean to say, 2) How you code this thought into language that is verbalised and 3) How people interpret what you say. Consequently, there is often a tremendous difference, between what you say and what someone hears. Be sensitive to the non-verbal clues of your partner and explain statements that seem puzzling or critical.

Listening skill

Most important aspect of the communication skill is the listening skill. Learn to listen well. To improve your listening skills, you will need to develop genuine interest in your partner. Demonstrate your interest by seizing opportunities to ask questions. Do not change the topic of conversation without acknowledging what the other person has just said. Ignoring what someone is saying is the easiest way to annoy that person, and you would not want to annoy your customer, client, colleague or a superior. If you think that, the current topic needs to be closed, have the agreement of all on that before proceeding to the next topic.

Body language
Body language is the non-verbal communication. The body language includes gestures, postures, movements and the physical distance. Your body never lies. Unconsciously, it telegraphs your thoughts as you fold your arms, cross your legs, stand, walk, move your eyes and mouth. Therefore, good posture is important, and so, too, is an eye contact.

Telephone Conversation
In modern business and corporate world, telephone conversation is very important. A first impression of any organisation is revealed through the first telephonic conversation with any member of the organisation. It is important to be prepared and plan your conversation in advance. You should keep pens, pencils and notepad handy, before placing a call. You should answer calls promptly within three rings. You need to smile genuinely as you pick the phone, as the caller will hear it in your voice. You need to project a tone that is enthusiastic, natural, attentive and respectful. During the conversation, it is important to enunciate or pronounce clearly and use simple English. Never slam the phone or cut off abruptly.

First Impression

When you join a new organisation, remember that you never get a second opportunity to make first impression. You should build gracious image that impress people. These impressions become indelibly engraved, in the minds of others by the way you smile, the way you talk, the way you walk, the way you shake hands, and the way you lean forward to create a bond between yourself and others. Your personality becomes a bridge, between you and the other people and creates the impressions that bind them to you. Present your package of personality, which make lasting impression on your peers, superiors and customers. That includes the appropriate business etiquette and the dressing. Whenever you are new to your workplace, office or group, stop, observe, listen and understand the people around you. You should always be humble and polite, but should carry image and picture of a person who is self-confident and faith in self.
Written Communication involves expressing yourself clearly, using language with precision; constructing a logical argument; note taking, editing and summarising; and writing reports. There are three main elements to written communication: structure (the way the content is laid out), style (the way it is written), and content (what you are writing about).
Assertiveness means ability to act in harmony, with your self-esteem, without hurting or manipulating others. The ability to discern is very essential, while using the assertive skills. Assertiveness training is based on the principles of behaviour therapy. It involves open communication, self-respect and respect for others. It is active orientation to life.

Team working skills:
In modern work environment, team-working skill is most important skill of all the skills. If an employee is master of all the other skills, but cannot work effectively in team with harmony, then he is not suitable in the organisation. The skill involves contributing own ideas effectively and taking a share of the responsibility in a group. The Employee should be assertive – rather than passive or aggressive. He should be able to accept and learn from constructive criticism, and able to provide positive and constructive feedback to others. It is also important that the team have enough freedom and empowerment to feel the ownership necessary to accomplish its task. At the same time, team members should clearly understand their boundaries.
Employment in organized sector during the five year Plans.
Vocational Education

Vocational educational in India aims to develop skilled manpower through diversified courses to meet the requirements of mainly the unorganised sector and to instil self-employment skills in people through a large number of self employment oriented courses. Vocational education is imparted through Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and polytechnics. One of the weaknesses of Indian education system is that it does not gives due importance to vocational education. As a result there is a mismatch between the skilled manpower required and skilled manpower available. Every year we churn out millions of graduates who do not have the specific skill sets required by the market. If this trend continues it would hurt our economic growth in the long run. To change this situation first we need to change our mindset. In India, people are obsessed with attaining a graduation degree and generally look down upon vocational education. This has resulted in a situation where on the one hand there are scores of unemployed graduates and on the other hand there is a huge shortage of skilled workers such as plumbers, electricians etc. To rectify this situation vocational training programs in India need to be promoted in a big way. Vocational training courses include:
• Typewriting
• Stenography
• Secretarial Practices
• Computer Operator & Programme Assistant
• Architectural Draughtsmanship
• Desk Top Publishing
• Electrical Technician
• Electronics (Radio/TV/Tape Recorder Mechanic)
• Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
• Plumbing
• Library Assistant
• Cutting/Tailoring & Dress Making
• Hair & Skin Care
• Fruit & Vegetable Preservation Programs
Vocational Training: A must for Indian Economy
In India, people are obsessed with attaining a graduation degree and generally look down upon vocational education. This has resulted in a huge shortage of skilled workers. If this trend continues, it would hurt our economic growth in the long run

FOR VOCATIONAL education and training in India, some 17 ministries and departments are involved in the provision and financing, with total annual training capacity of about 28 lakh (2,800,000) students. But as with many matters managed by our governments, the vocational training system is full of superlatives and potential on the one hand and inefficiency, on the other. The so called agencies have put their slogans only in their printed guidelines and handouts without taking into account the real target populace. In this age of liberalisation, India is still far from training people in different specialisations.
Vocational training is to impart specialised skills and knowledge and instilling social and political attitudes and behaviour patterns essential for successful economic activities by people engaged in dependent employment, self-employment or subsistence work. Vocational training can be of various types, depending on the way it has been acquired.
’Formal training’ refers to all training courses held in state or private (but state-certified) institutions regulated by state guidelines. ’Non-formal training’ covers all forms of training that takes place without being subject to state guidelines. In-company apprenticeships, both in formal or informal sector enterprises, are one of the most common forms of non-formal training. This kind of training also includes all programmes and projects offering skills-upgrading for those already active on the labour market, but who wish to extend their competencies by attending evening or weekend courses. There are no prerequisites for anyone to acquire vocational training. Both men and women can get trained at any time during their life. Studies have already proven that formal education is not a prerequisite for acquiring practical skills for income-generation, especially in the context of the informal sector. However, India’s formal vocational training system often creates minimum educational prerequisites leading to exclusion of those with lower levels of education.
In India, vocational education falls under the charge of the ministry of human resources development (MHRD). The ministry oversees vocational courses being offered in schools in 11th and 12th standard, under a centrally sponsored scheme called ’Vocationalisation of Secondary Education’ since 1988. Only the schools affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) offer the courses in accordance with the board’s scheme of studies and the course structure. The courses are of two-years duration and span six major disciplines, like dairying, farm machinery and equipment (agriculture), accounting and auditing (business and commerce), electrical technology, air conditioning and refrigeration (engineering and technology), X-Ray technician, health care and beauty culture (health and para medical) and preservation of fruits and vegetables, food services and management (home sciences and humanities).
Vocational training, on the other hand, broadly refers to certificate level crafts training (in India) and is open to students, who leave school after completing anywhere from grades 8-12. Programmes administered under the craftsmen training scheme (CTS) are operated by Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and Industrial Training Centres (ITCs). This scheme falls within the purview of the directorate general of employment and training (DGET), under the ministry of labour and employment (MOLE).
At a higher level, the technical education and vocational training system in India produces a labour force through a three-tier system — graduate and post-graduate level specialists (e.g., Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) and engineering colleges) trained as engineers and technologists; diploma-level graduates, who are trained in polytechnics as technicians and supervisors; and certificate-level craft people trained in it is, as well as through formal apprenticeships as semi-skilled and skilled workers.
The government of India in recent years has laid a lot of emphasis on streamlining vocational education so that it fulfils the emerging need of the market by focusing on employability skills. In consonance with this thrust, the CBSE has introduced a course in financial market management (FMM), under vocational stream, which is likely to be renamed as professional education and training. In the budget speech 2007-08, Union finance minister announced a scheme for upgradation of 1396 government ITIs into centres of excellence in specific trades and skills through public private partnership. In pursuance of this announcement wide-ranging discussions were held with state governments, industry associations and other stakeholders and a scheme named ’Upgradation of 1396 Government ITIs through Public Private Partnership’ was formulated.
The cabinet committee for economic affairs (CCEA) of the Union cabinet in its meeting held on October 25, 2007 has approved this scheme ‘in principle’ for the XI five year plan period and has given financial approval for one year for up gradation of the first batch of 300 ITIs at a cost of Rs 774.5 crore.
The directorate general of employment and training (DGE&T) in the ministry of labour, government of India initiated CTS in 1950 by establishing about 50 ITIs for imparting skills in various vocational trades to meet the skilled manpower requirements for technology and industrial growth of the country. One of the main reasons for the lack of market responsiveness among vocational training courses is the limited or no participation of the industry in contributing to curricula development. It is the industry which has to finally employ the training graduates. Hence, their mandate in determining what their future employees need to be taught can hardly be overemphasised. There are some rare cases of industry participation, as members of institute management committees (IMCs) for ITIs. But even such participation has been found to namesake, at best.
Studies have only reinforced the fact that the majority of workers in the unorganised economy of India have never been to vocational training institutions and/or school. On the other hand, the formal skills training system, because of its educational entry requirements and long duration of courses, is designed to exclude the underprivileged informal sector workers. Yet, given the vast size of India’s informal workforce, the need to address the skills of informal sector workers is more pressing than any other.
One of the weaknesses of Indian education system is that it does not gives due importance to vocational education. As a result, there is a mismatch between the skilled manpower required and skilled manpower available. Every year we churn out millions of graduates, who do not have the specific skill sets required by the market. If this trend continues, it would hurt our economic growth in the long run. To change this situation, first we need to change our mindset. In India, people are obsessed with attaining a graduation degree and generally look down upon vocational education. This has resulted in a situation, where on the one hand there are scores of unemployed graduates and on the other hand there is a huge shortage of skilled workers, such as plumbers, electricians, etc. And this must change.
Youth and Sustainable Livelihood.
Livelihood is a broader category than employment and more in line with the actual manner in which many young people organize themselves and their activities in order to survive. An adaptability and dynamic livelihood capability is the key to generating sustainable livelihoods. Dynamic livelihood capabilities can be thought of as enterprising behaviour in a developing context. The institutional challenge is to improve the effectiveness of the non-formal training system in order to mediate the latent potential of young people into productive social and economic activity, while understanding their current livelihood conditions and capabilities. Governments need to address key global policies that affect youth employment and livelihood. They need to take strategies that promote self-employment and entrepreneurship, school to work programmes and work-based training. A partnership with the private sector needs to be strengthened and the use of new information and communication technologies to support youth employment and training must be encouraged. The youth themselves must be empowered to generate the solutions to youth employment and their best practices and success stories must be acknowledged at all levels to support further replication of such initiatives from the grassroots to the global level.
The United Nation and Youth Participation
The United Nations has long recognized the important role youth play in the continuing development of the world in which they live. The United Nations drew worldwide attention to the importance of youth in observing the 1985 International Youth Year: Participation, Development and Peace. Acknowledging the need to expand the opportunities for young people to participate fully in their society, the General Assembly adopted in 1995 the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and beyond as a framework for nations to increase their capacities to address youth needs and issues.
Youth in the Asia-Pacific region constitute a significant proportion of the population, highlighting the importance of fully integrating youth into society through youth participation. Youth, according to the United Nations definition, is the age group between 15 and 24 years old, which represents approximately one-fifth of the total population of the UNESCAP region. The underlying premise of youth participation is that in encouraging youth to participate more fully in society, youth are essentially encouraged to be more knowledgeable on their rights and become more responsible citizens. It is envisaged that once young people have the opportunity to realize their potential, be respected by society and fully participate in their community, consistent with their human rights and responsibilities, society at large will benefit. Youth is therefore the key to the future that thus places them at the core of human resources development (HRD).
UNESCAP recognized the importance of youth participation as a priority in adopting resolution 52/4[3] on “Promoting human resources development among youth in Asia and the Pacific” in April 1996. This was in response to the United Nations General Assembly adoption of the World Programme Action for Youth, which highlighted ten priority areas including “the full and effective participation of youth in society and decision-making.”
Youth Employability in USA
Job skills and job training
Americans recognize that a significant problem for American youth is a lack of job training and job skills and see a need to increase services to youth that would better prepare them for employment.
• Two out of three Americans see a lack of job skills as a serious problem for young adults aged 17-21 in their communities (Yankelovich Partners, “Young Adults At Risk Survey,” 1995)
• Fewer than one out of four (23%) consider the quality of education and job training of young people to be excellent or good. (Peter Hart, Council on Competitiveness, 1991)
• Many more see a need for more job training (67%) and job placement (62%) services. (Yankelovich Partners, “Young Adults At Risk Survey,” 1995)
• An analysis of the United States as compared to six other industrial democracies found it at or near the bottom in the effectiveness of its employment services and school-to-work programs (“Why People Don’t Trust Government,” Nye, Zelikow & King, Harvard, 1997 p.72)
• When asked who should take the lead in providing job training for youth, 43% named individuals and businesses, 35% put the emphasis on government programs and funding and 20% volunteered that both should be involved. (CNN, USA Today/ Gallup survey, 1995)
Conclusion
India is already been recognised as second fastest economy, after China. India is one of the largest economies in the world, and shall continue its rapid urbanization and economic development over the next several decades. This is a very positive and welcome development.
India is one large country politically. But there are many India so far as Indian youth and their problems are concerned. The problem of rural youth is different, especially right education, employability, education and soft skills Training facility and vocational training. Youth of urban India and India of cities has different problems.
India needs to go a long way to improve education system and content of education that can be applied on job and industry. Content of education should include personality development, communication skill and team work and team spirit. So that educated youth become employable.
India has to create state wise Vocational Training and Employment Institutions and Centres. There should be greater emphasis on self Employment opportunities and training.