Youth Employability in Current Situation Youth not Educated for Employment General Pan India Situation

October 30, 2014, 3:57 pm

By: Dr.Athiqul H. Laskar
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Youth from several Indian states are “not educated enough for employment” as per the market demand as per recent study released? The findings also indicated that “most youth were neither adequately educated nor equipped with vocational skills”.”Just two in every five young men (40 percent) and one in every three young women (33 percent) had completed secondary education…(and) one in every 12 young men and one in four young women had never been to school at all in the country,” said the study conducted under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

The study titled ‘Youth in India: Situation and Needs’ assessed the situation of youth in six states – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Tamilnadu – between 2006 and 2008, involving over 58,000 youths in the age group of 15-29 years. Around 44-52 percent of men and 36-48 percent of women in Maharashtra and the southern states of Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu had completed 10 or more years of education, compared to 30-38 percent of men and 13-18 percent of women from the other states. “Basic education can be very important in helping people to get jobs and gainful employment. This connection, while always present, is particularly critical in a rapidly globalising world in which quality control and production according to strict specification can be crucial,” Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said at the release of the study. Around 56 percent of men and 68 percent of women surveyed were interested in acquiring vocational skills to help employability. The study was carried out by the Population Council, Delhi, and International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai.

India is shining. India is progressing with an amazing growth rate. Growth rate of India is the second highest in the world after that of China The youth force of India are contributing lot to the same. It is believed that principal reason behind Indian progress is its youth force, highest in number in the world. However, there is a problem. Huge number of Indian youth is not only unemployed but unemployable.

There are two new world leaders China, in manufacturing sector and India, in service sector. Large numbers of white collar jobs are waiting for suitable candidates. Indian youth force, behind the progress of India, is mainly engaged in IT. India is a leader in software. Software industries in India are continually offering white collar jobs besides some blue collars.
India is also world leader in BPO (Business process out sourcing) and KPO (Knowledge process out sourcing). Large numbers of call centres are contributing to the industries and trades of America the US, UK, and Australia, Japan, European Union, Canada Japan and many other developed countries. BPO sector needs large number of blue collars. KPO industries require and offer white collar jobs.
An IT industry has seen a tremendous boom in India. This industry has employed large number of educated youth with handsome salary. Normally, IT is the highest paid sector. Management, banking, finance, retail, telecommunication, entertainment etc. are some other new sectors that helped India in her tremendous growth.
Shortage of Skill Power
These sectors have started facing a typical problem. Despite a large number of educated youth, there is a shortage of skilled manpower. This is the dilemma. There are unemployed youths and the companies are facing shortage of manpower.
A recent survey throws light on the problem, problems with the educated youth. They are mainly lacking three types of skills.
1. Communication skill
2. Analytical skill and problem solving
3. Respective Domain knowledge and skill.
While in interview approximately sixty percent candidates are screened due to lack of communication skills. Rest twenty five percent are screened for analytical skills and five percent for their lack of knowledge in their respective domain. Hence ninety percent of educated youth force are lacking in one of these three main skills required for job and employment. Only ten percent of educated force of India is employable. Employers are struggling hard to attract them with huge pay-packages that are increasing their production cost significantly. The employers are loosing their competitive edge in global markets. Global slow down only adds to the crisis. Corporations are now facing dual problem.
The problem lies in the education system. The Indian education system has a mismatch with the requirements of the industries. Institutes teach what ever they want. Institutes do not teach what industries require. Industries do not require what institutes teach. The syllabus committees have not been interfacing with the industries. Many big industries have set-up their own in house training program to fight with the problem. Most of the newly employed youths are compulsorily undergone employers own training program. This enhances cost of employers enormously. It also wastes time.
The problem and solution have two aspects: Individual and collective.
As an individual you have to choose your courses carefully. You have to interact with the industries to know their requirements. You must choose an institute very carefully. Ensure that they are covering above mentioned three aspects in their syllabus. It is in your best interest to ensure that your institute is interfacing with the requirements of industries before you admit into it.
What should be done as a general measure to solve the problem?
The one point solution of the problem is a change in education system, a radical change. There must be an interface among Government bodies looking after education, Universities, all India committee of technical education and the representatives of the industries. The institutes must educate as per industries’ needs. Have these done, India will not face problem of employability and the youth force of India will not be remain unemployed.
Degrees are not enough in job market.

Enhancing Employee Employability
We are living in the highly connected and cutthroat competitive global world, with changing environment and expectation as well as shifting paradigms. It is an individual’s capability to get an employment, not only because he has a degree and the technical skills but also possesses other soft skills. Once your degree has unlocked the door, you will need the right mix of soft skills, to get employment in competitive market place.
The Corporate houses need employees that can be immediately employed and deployed. Nasscom also confessed recently, that there is huge demand and supply mismatch in the quality work force in terms of the technical skills and skills of communication, articulation and teamwork. India Inc. gears to face its biggest challenge over a talent shortage of 5, 00,000 knowledge workers as per Nasscom McKinsey report. The situation is compounded by the fact that only 25% of the fresh engineers are employable by the multinationals.

Employability is the ability of an individual to be employed. An employability skill is a set of achievements, understandings, personal skills and attitude that make individuals more likely to gain employment and to be effective, competent and successful in their chosen career.

Many large corporate houses and technical firms are investing heavily into the pre-employment training. Organisations that focus strongly on interpersonal skills learning are on average 27 % more productive and enjoy 40 percent higher revenue growth than their competitors, according to a recent study by Accenture. With investment in the pre-employment training, cost of recruitment and training will come down significantly, especially of IT and ITES companies, who need to hire aggressively.

The educational institutes has to innovate themselves and work hard to bridge the gap between industry expectation, requirements and industry education .They need to align the talent and skills development to match corporate expectations and maximise their employability and competitive edge. The importance of enhancement of employee employability cannot be overestimated. It is now time to ensure quality education and focus on honing the employability skills right from the school. It is still remains a question how to bridge the huge gap in the availability of employable skill.
One needs the soft skills like effective communication skills, interpersonal skills, business etiquette and the telephone skills to blend in today’s corporate world. All these skills including leadership skills, motivation skills, teamwork, public speaking, group discussion and even the appropriate dressing are people centric skills. Students are required to imbibe necessary soft skills and competency talents to compete in career market place. These skills also make them fit for employment in industry and corporate world.
People Skills
You cannot succeed just by yourself. You have to be lifted to success by people who are willing to help you. You can become successful only when he learns to deal with the people who make his/her success possible.

Success is built on people. Its people to whom you listen and also listen to you and watch what you do. People are your doorway to success. So pass through those doors diplomatically. People are opportunity. They are new horizons. Then take this understanding and create whole new life for yourself, a more successful life, based upon the ingredient in the formula for success called “Dealing with people.”

It is people who respond to suggestions and whose vanity and pride must be traded upon to achieve your desire. It is people, who must be persuaded, led, directed, cajoled, teased or pleased. It is people who must be “sold” on you, your products, your services, day after day. Therefore to get success, to get what you want out of life, it is vital to know to deal with people and touch the buttons that motivate them Everybody has dreams and wants to fulfill dream in one’s life span. But only few can live their dreams.
A large component of your career success depends on other people. Many professionals and business persons are highly competent and well trained and dedicated in their works. But still fail or failed to advance to their potential because they lack soft skills, skills of dealing with people. We are living in highly connected and cutthroat competitive global world. In addition to required academic, technical education and work experience, one needs soft skills like effective communication skills, interpersonal skills, and business etiquette and telephone skills to blend in today’s corporate world. All these skills including leadership skills, motivation skills, teamwork, public speaking, group discussion and even appropriate dressing are people centric skills. People skills are most important skills of all skills.”

Mr. Emmett C. Murphy author of national bookseller, New York, 1966 of the book “Leadership IQ” writes: “We gained a third important insight when we saw another consistent pattern in the behavior of work leaders: They know how to say the right thing to right people to get the right work done well, on time, and within budget. They reveal themselves by their deeds and thus provide role models for everyone with whom they interact. They have mastered art of conversation.

You must understand the people to succeed in Life.

No success without understanding the People. You must have insight of the people you need to deal. You should talk less and listen more. You must learn to watch and listen to the people. The main technique is to keep your eyes & ears open, mouth closed. You need to have skill and insight for managing, selling and working with people. These skills are essential for getting people to do what you want them to do. You should know and accept the fact that everybody has strength as well as weakness. Everybody has his/her own uniqueness. You must learn to tolerate the other person’s weakness. People need you because of their weakness and not because of their strength. You should not make judgment about others without meeting, knowing and understanding them. Firstly you should observe and listen to them. Always look for personal dynamics beneath the surface.

Insight into the People.

You must have the greatest insight into the field of human motivation most “Satisfied need do not motivate.” It is also essential to know the needs of the people that they value most after physical survival. These needs are: To Be Understood, To Be Affirmed, to be validated, to be appreciated.

It is important to listen with empathy to understand the people. It gives them psychological air Understanding the people impacts communication in every area of life. You should not bounce the words around but should respond to everyone’s uniqueness. It is important to give others full attention by putting their feeling and thoughts ahead of your own. You should grow habit to understand the other people first.

Seek first to understand then to be understood.

We normally seek first to be understood. We need to listen to other person with deep interest so that we really deeply understand the other human being from that person’s own frame of reference. Most of the people do not hear other people to really listen and understand them. It is their habit to listen the people with the intention of replying them back. While hearing other people, they are either speaking or preparing to reply and are filtering everything from their own perceptions or experiences. Most of us are always filled with our own rightness. We always want others to understand us. We never try to understand what is going on inside another human being. It is important to know that you are dealing with the reality inside another person’s head and heart. You must focus on receiving the deep communication of another human soul.

It lies in the ability to get the other person’s point of view and see things from that person’s angle as well as from your own to understand the people. That is so simple, so obvious, that anyone ought to see the truth of it at a glance. Yet 90% of the people on this earth ignore it 90% of the time.

Know to deal with you.

You have to be comfortable with yourself before you can be truly comfortable with others. Therefore success in this area would have to do with being happy with you. You should have full confidence and faith in self. You should take responsibility to deal with you so that you can get along and deal with others effectively. Wherever you are, whatever you do, the ability to handle people is one of the most important skills. Getting along with people is the key to personal development. The easiest way to think of this is as expanding spheres of influence. Each area leads to the next.

The better you are at handling people, dealing with people, and the happier and successful you will be with your life.

Getting people to do that you want them to do.

You should know that there is only one way to get anyone to do anything, yes, only one way, and that is by making the other person want to do it. The only way I can get you to do something is by giving you what you want. “Every act you have ever performed since the day you were born,”Said Andrew Carnegie “was performed because you wanted something.” Here are some of the motives most people will do to achieve.

1) Health and the preservation of life
2) Food
3) Sleep
4) Money and the things money will buy
5) Life in the hereafter
6) Sexual gratification
7) The well-being of our children
8) A feeling of importance

You should know that there is only one way to get anyone to do anything, yes, only one way, and that is by making the other person want to do it. The only way I can get you to do something is by giving you what you want. Why talk about what you want? You are always interested in it. But no one else is. The rest of us are just like you: we are interested in what we want. So the only way on earth to influence other people is to talk about what they want and show them how to get it.

Apart from health, money and what money can buy, you must aim to satisfy important need of any human being to get him to do what you want them to do, is to recognised and feel important.

How to make other People “Important “.

There is one longing, almost as deep, almost as imperious, as the desire for food or sleep, which is seldom gratified. It’s “the desire to be important.” The rare individual who honestly satisfies their heart hunger will hold people in the palm of his hand. Give others your full attention by putting their feeling and their thoughts ahead of your own.

A successful leader is always ready to listen and have willingness to learn from everything and everyone. You must recognise the fact that these people can have the best information and these are the very people that you lead. You need to encourage people to speak their mind even if it is controversial. Allowing people to speak their mind doesn’t mean that they will lose respect for your authority as a leader. Actually, quite the opposite will occur. People will begin to feel like they are a contributing factor and important person.

Appreciation:

One of the most neglected virtues of our daily existence is appreciation. In our interpersonal relationship, we should never forget that all our associates are human beings and hunger for appreciation. Let’s cease thinking of our accomplishments, our wants. Let’s try to figure out the other person’s good points. Then forget flattery. Give honest, sincere appreciation.

Communication Skills

The Communication skills can be further divided into the verbal communication, written communication and the telephonic conversation. The Communication skills also include assertive skill and listening skill. In survey after survey, the interpersonal communication skills are consistently ranked at or near the top of a list of all the skills necessary for career success. People who possess these skills enjoy a better relationship at work and more productive interactions with those around them. Teams with members who excel at these skills are more productive and more cohesive. No one is born with these “people skills.” They are the result of attention and practice.

Realize that the communication is more than just the words we use. There are three aspects involved: 1) What you mean to say, 2) How you code this thought into language that is verbalised and 3) How people interpret what you say. Consequently, there is often a tremendous difference, between what you say and what someone hears. Be sensitive to the non-verbal clues of your partner and explain statements that seem puzzling or critical.

Listening skill

Most important aspect of the communication skill is the listening skill. Learn to listen well. To improve your listening skills, you will need to develop genuine interest in your partner. Demonstrate your interest by seizing opportunities to ask questions. Do not change the topic of conversation without acknowledging what the other person has just said. Ignoring what someone is saying is the easiest way to annoy that person, and you would not want to annoy your customer, client, colleague or a superior. If you think that, the current topic needs to be closed, have the agreement of all on that before proceeding to the next topic.

Body language
Body language is the non-verbal communication. The body language includes gestures, postures, movements and the physical distance. Your body never lies. Unconsciously, it telegraphs your thoughts as you fold your arms, cross your legs, stand, walk, move your eyes and mouth. Therefore, good posture is important, and so, too, is an eye contact.

Telephone Conversation
In modern business and corporate world, telephone conversation is very important. A first impression of any organisation is revealed through the first telephonic conversation with any member of the organisation. It is important to be prepared and plan your conversation in advance. You should keep pens, pencils and notepad handy, before placing a call. You should answer calls promptly within three rings. You need to smile genuinely as you pick the phone, as the caller will hear it in your voice. You need to project a tone that is enthusiastic, natural, attentive and respectful. During the conversation, it is important to enunciate or pronounce clearly and use simple English. Never slam the phone or cut off abruptly.

First Impression

When you join a new organisation, remember that you never get a second opportunity to make first impression. You should build gracious image that impress people. These impressions become indelibly engraved, in the minds of others by the way you smile, the way you talk, the way you walk, the way you shake hands, and the way you lean forward to create a bond between yourself and others. Your personality becomes a bridge, between you and the other people and creates the impressions that bind them to you. Present your package of personality, which make lasting impression on your peers, superiors and customers. That includes the appropriate business etiquette and the dressing. Whenever you are new to your workplace, office or group, stop, observe, listen and understand the people around you. You should always be humble and polite, but should carry image and picture of a person who is self-confident and faith in self.
Written Communication involves expressing yourself clearly, using language with precision; constructing a logical argument; note taking, editing and summarising; and writing reports. There are three main elements to written communication: structure (the way the content is laid out), style (the way it is written), and content (what you are writing about).
Assertiveness means ability to act in harmony, with your self-esteem, without hurting or manipulating others. The ability to discern is very essential, while using the assertive skills. Assertiveness training is based on the principles of behaviour therapy. It involves open communication, self-respect and respect for others. It is active orientation to life.

Team working skills:
In modern work environment, team-working skill is most important skill of all the skills. If an employee is master of all the other skills, but cannot work effectively in team with harmony, then he is not suitable in the organisation. The skill involves contributing own ideas effectively and taking a share of the responsibility in a group. The Employee should be assertive – rather than passive or aggressive. He should be able to accept and learn from constructive criticism, and able to provide positive and constructive feedback to others. It is also important that the team have enough freedom and empowerment to feel the ownership necessary to accomplish its task. At the same time, team members should clearly understand their boundaries.
Employment in organized sector during the five year Plans.
Vocational Education

Vocational educational in India aims to develop skilled manpower through diversified courses to meet the requirements of mainly the unorganised sector and to instil self-employment skills in people through a large number of self employment oriented courses. Vocational education is imparted through Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and polytechnics. One of the weaknesses of Indian education system is that it does not gives due importance to vocational education. As a result there is a mismatch between the skilled manpower required and skilled manpower available. Every year we churn out millions of graduates who do not have the specific skill sets required by the market. If this trend continues it would hurt our economic growth in the long run. To change this situation first we need to change our mindset. In India, people are obsessed with attaining a graduation degree and generally look down upon vocational education. This has resulted in a situation where on the one hand there are scores of unemployed graduates and on the other hand there is a huge shortage of skilled workers such as plumbers, electricians etc. To rectify this situation vocational training programs in India need to be promoted in a big way. Vocational training courses include:
• Typewriting
• Stenography
• Secretarial Practices
• Computer Operator & Programme Assistant
• Architectural Draughtsmanship
• Desk Top Publishing
• Electrical Technician
• Electronics (Radio/TV/Tape Recorder Mechanic)
• Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
• Plumbing
• Library Assistant
• Cutting/Tailoring & Dress Making
• Hair & Skin Care
• Fruit & Vegetable Preservation Programs
Vocational Training: A must for Indian Economy
In India, people are obsessed with attaining a graduation degree and generally look down upon vocational education. This has resulted in a huge shortage of skilled workers. If this trend continues, it would hurt our economic growth in the long run

FOR VOCATIONAL education and training in India, some 17 ministries and departments are involved in the provision and financing, with total annual training capacity of about 28 lakh (2,800,000) students. But as with many matters managed by our governments, the vocational training system is full of superlatives and potential on the one hand and inefficiency, on the other. The so called agencies have put their slogans only in their printed guidelines and handouts without taking into account the real target populace. In this age of liberalisation, India is still far from training people in different specialisations.
Vocational training is to impart specialised skills and knowledge and instilling social and political attitudes and behaviour patterns essential for successful economic activities by people engaged in dependent employment, self-employment or subsistence work. Vocational training can be of various types, depending on the way it has been acquired.
’Formal training’ refers to all training courses held in state or private (but state-certified) institutions regulated by state guidelines. ’Non-formal training’ covers all forms of training that takes place without being subject to state guidelines. In-company apprenticeships, both in formal or informal sector enterprises, are one of the most common forms of non-formal training. This kind of training also includes all programmes and projects offering skills-upgrading for those already active on the labour market, but who wish to extend their competencies by attending evening or weekend courses. There are no prerequisites for anyone to acquire vocational training. Both men and women can get trained at any time during their life. Studies have already proven that formal education is not a prerequisite for acquiring practical skills for income-generation, especially in the context of the informal sector. However, India’s formal vocational training system often creates minimum educational prerequisites leading to exclusion of those with lower levels of education.
In India, vocational education falls under the charge of the ministry of human resources development (MHRD). The ministry oversees vocational courses being offered in schools in 11th and 12th standard, under a centrally sponsored scheme called ’Vocationalisation of Secondary Education’ since 1988. Only the schools affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) offer the courses in accordance with the board’s scheme of studies and the course structure. The courses are of two-years duration and span six major disciplines, like dairying, farm machinery and equipment (agriculture), accounting and auditing (business and commerce), electrical technology, air conditioning and refrigeration (engineering and technology), X-Ray technician, health care and beauty culture (health and para medical) and preservation of fruits and vegetables, food services and management (home sciences and humanities).
Vocational training, on the other hand, broadly refers to certificate level crafts training (in India) and is open to students, who leave school after completing anywhere from grades 8-12. Programmes administered under the craftsmen training scheme (CTS) are operated by Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and Industrial Training Centres (ITCs). This scheme falls within the purview of the directorate general of employment and training (DGET), under the ministry of labour and employment (MOLE).
At a higher level, the technical education and vocational training system in India produces a labour force through a three-tier system — graduate and post-graduate level specialists (e.g., Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) and engineering colleges) trained as engineers and technologists; diploma-level graduates, who are trained in polytechnics as technicians and supervisors; and certificate-level craft people trained in it is, as well as through formal apprenticeships as semi-skilled and skilled workers.
The government of India in recent years has laid a lot of emphasis on streamlining vocational education so that it fulfils the emerging need of the market by focusing on employability skills. In consonance with this thrust, the CBSE has introduced a course in financial market management (FMM), under vocational stream, which is likely to be renamed as professional education and training. In the budget speech 2007-08, Union finance minister announced a scheme for upgradation of 1396 government ITIs into centres of excellence in specific trades and skills through public private partnership. In pursuance of this announcement wide-ranging discussions were held with state governments, industry associations and other stakeholders and a scheme named ’Upgradation of 1396 Government ITIs through Public Private Partnership’ was formulated.
The cabinet committee for economic affairs (CCEA) of the Union cabinet in its meeting held on October 25, 2007 has approved this scheme ‘in principle’ for the XI five year plan period and has given financial approval for one year for up gradation of the first batch of 300 ITIs at a cost of Rs 774.5 crore.
The directorate general of employment and training (DGE&T) in the ministry of labour, government of India initiated CTS in 1950 by establishing about 50 ITIs for imparting skills in various vocational trades to meet the skilled manpower requirements for technology and industrial growth of the country. One of the main reasons for the lack of market responsiveness among vocational training courses is the limited or no participation of the industry in contributing to curricula development. It is the industry which has to finally employ the training graduates. Hence, their mandate in determining what their future employees need to be taught can hardly be overemphasised. There are some rare cases of industry participation, as members of institute management committees (IMCs) for ITIs. But even such participation has been found to namesake, at best.
Studies have only reinforced the fact that the majority of workers in the unorganised economy of India have never been to vocational training institutions and/or school. On the other hand, the formal skills training system, because of its educational entry requirements and long duration of courses, is designed to exclude the underprivileged informal sector workers. Yet, given the vast size of India’s informal workforce, the need to address the skills of informal sector workers is more pressing than any other.
One of the weaknesses of Indian education system is that it does not gives due importance to vocational education. As a result, there is a mismatch between the skilled manpower required and skilled manpower available. Every year we churn out millions of graduates, who do not have the specific skill sets required by the market. If this trend continues, it would hurt our economic growth in the long run. To change this situation, first we need to change our mindset. In India, people are obsessed with attaining a graduation degree and generally look down upon vocational education. This has resulted in a situation, where on the one hand there are scores of unemployed graduates and on the other hand there is a huge shortage of skilled workers, such as plumbers, electricians, etc. And this must change.
Youth and Sustainable Livelihood.
Livelihood is a broader category than employment and more in line with the actual manner in which many young people organize themselves and their activities in order to survive. An adaptability and dynamic livelihood capability is the key to generating sustainable livelihoods. Dynamic livelihood capabilities can be thought of as enterprising behaviour in a developing context. The institutional challenge is to improve the effectiveness of the non-formal training system in order to mediate the latent potential of young people into productive social and economic activity, while understanding their current livelihood conditions and capabilities. Governments need to address key global policies that affect youth employment and livelihood. They need to take strategies that promote self-employment and entrepreneurship, school to work programmes and work-based training. A partnership with the private sector needs to be strengthened and the use of new information and communication technologies to support youth employment and training must be encouraged. The youth themselves must be empowered to generate the solutions to youth employment and their best practices and success stories must be acknowledged at all levels to support further replication of such initiatives from the grassroots to the global level.
The United Nation and Youth Participation
The United Nations has long recognized the important role youth play in the continuing development of the world in which they live. The United Nations drew worldwide attention to the importance of youth in observing the 1985 International Youth Year: Participation, Development and Peace. Acknowledging the need to expand the opportunities for young people to participate fully in their society, the General Assembly adopted in 1995 the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and beyond as a framework for nations to increase their capacities to address youth needs and issues.
Youth in the Asia-Pacific region constitute a significant proportion of the population, highlighting the importance of fully integrating youth into society through youth participation. Youth, according to the United Nations definition, is the age group between 15 and 24 years old, which represents approximately one-fifth of the total population of the UNESCAP region. The underlying premise of youth participation is that in encouraging youth to participate more fully in society, youth are essentially encouraged to be more knowledgeable on their rights and become more responsible citizens. It is envisaged that once young people have the opportunity to realize their potential, be respected by society and fully participate in their community, consistent with their human rights and responsibilities, society at large will benefit. Youth is therefore the key to the future that thus places them at the core of human resources development (HRD).
UNESCAP recognized the importance of youth participation as a priority in adopting resolution 52/4[3] on “Promoting human resources development among youth in Asia and the Pacific” in April 1996. This was in response to the United Nations General Assembly adoption of the World Programme Action for Youth, which highlighted ten priority areas including “the full and effective participation of youth in society and decision-making.”
Youth Employability in USA
Job skills and job training
Americans recognize that a significant problem for American youth is a lack of job training and job skills and see a need to increase services to youth that would better prepare them for employment.
• Two out of three Americans see a lack of job skills as a serious problem for young adults aged 17-21 in their communities (Yankelovich Partners, “Young Adults At Risk Survey,” 1995)
• Fewer than one out of four (23%) consider the quality of education and job training of young people to be excellent or good. (Peter Hart, Council on Competitiveness, 1991)
• Many more see a need for more job training (67%) and job placement (62%) services. (Yankelovich Partners, “Young Adults At Risk Survey,” 1995)
• An analysis of the United States as compared to six other industrial democracies found it at or near the bottom in the effectiveness of its employment services and school-to-work programs (“Why People Don’t Trust Government,” Nye, Zelikow & King, Harvard, 1997 p.72)
• When asked who should take the lead in providing job training for youth, 43% named individuals and businesses, 35% put the emphasis on government programs and funding and 20% volunteered that both should be involved. (CNN, USA Today/ Gallup survey, 1995)
Conclusion
India is already been recognised as second fastest economy, after China. India is one of the largest economies in the world, and shall continue its rapid urbanization and economic development over the next several decades. This is a very positive and welcome development.
India is one large country politically. But there are many India so far as Indian youth and their problems are concerned. The problem of rural youth is different, especially right education, employability, education and soft skills Training facility and vocational training. Youth of urban India and India of cities has different problems.
India needs to go a long way to improve education system and content of education that can be applied on job and industry. Content of education should include personality development, communication skill and team work and team spirit. So that educated youth become employable.
India has to create state wise Vocational Training and Employment Institutions and Centres. There should be greater emphasis on self Employment opportunities and training.

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